Musings on Digital Identity

Category: Events Page 1 of 4

OpenID Summit Tokyo 2024 and the 10th Anniversary of OpenID Connect

OpenID logoI’m pleased to bring your attention to the upcoming OpenID Summit Tokyo 2024, which will be held on Friday, January 19, 2024. Join us there for a stellar line-up of speakers and consequential conversations!

OpenID Summit Tokyo 2024

This builds on the successes of past summits organized by the OpenID Foundation Japan. For instance, I found the OpenID Summit Tokyo 2020 and associated activities and discussions both very useful and very enjoyable.

A special feature of the 2024 summit will be celebrating the 10th anniversary of the OpenID Connect specifications, which were approved on February 25, 2014. Speakers who were there for its creation, interop testing, and early deployments will share their experiences and lessons learned, including several key participants from Japan. As I recounted at EIC 2023, building ecosystems is hard. And yet we achieved that for OpenID Connect! We are working to create new identity ecosystems as we speak. I believe that the lessons learned from OpenID Connect are very applicable today. Come join the conversation!

Finally, as a teaser, I’m also helping the OpenID Foundation to plan two additional 10th anniversary celebrations at prominent 2024 identity events – one in Europe and one in the Americas. Watch this space for further news about these as it develops!

What does Presentation Exchange do and what parts of it do we actually need? (redux)

IIW LogoI convened the session “What does Presentation Exchange do and what parts of it do we actually need?” this week at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) to continue the discussion started during two unconference sessions at the 2023 OAuth Security Workshop. I briefly summarized the discussions that occurred at OSW, then we had a vigorous discussion of our own.

Key points made were:

  • There appeared to be rough consensus in the room that Presentation Exchange (PE) is pretty complicated. People had differing opinions on whether the complexity is worth it.
  • A lot of the complexity of PE comes from being able to request multiple credentials at once and to express alternatives.
  • Ultimately, the verifier knows what kinds of credentials it needs and the relationships between them. PE tries to let the verifier express some of that to the wallet.
  • Code running in the verifier making choices about the credentials it needs will always be more powerful than PE, because it has the full decision-making facilities of programming languages – including loops, conditionals, etc.
  • Making a composite request for multiple credentials can have a better UX than a sequence of requests. In some situations, the sequence could result in the person having to scan multiple QR codes. There may be ways to avoid that, while still having a sequence of requests.
  • Some said that they need the ability to request multiple credentials at once.
  • Brent Zundel (a PE author) suggested that while wallets could implement all of PE, verifiers could implement only the parts they need.
  • Not many parties had implemented all of PE. Torsten Lodderstedt suggested that we need feedback from developers.
  • We could create a profile of PE, reducing what implementers have to build and correspondingly reducing its expressive power.

The slides used to summarize the preceding discussions are available as PowerPoint and PDF. There are detailed notes capturing some of the back-and-forth at IIW with attribution.

Thanks to everyone who participated for an informative and useful discussion. My goal was to help inform the profiling and deployment choices ahead of us.

P.S. Since Thursday’s discussion, it occurred to me that a question I wish I’d asked is:

  • When a verifier needs multiple credentials, they may be in different wallets. If the verifier tries to make a PE request for multiple credentials that are spread between wallets, will it always fail because no single wallet can satisfy it?

Fodder for the next discussion…

OpenID Presentations at October 2023 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentation at the Monday, October 9, 2023 OpenID Workshop at CISCO:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, October 10, 2023:

The Key Is Not Enough! – OpenID Connect Federation at OSW 2023

OAuth Security WorkshopVladimir Dzhuvinov gave the innovative and informative presentation “The Key Is Not Enough!” on OpenID Connect Federation at the 2023 OAuth Security Workshop in London. This action thriller of a presentation covers history, goals, mechanisms, status, deployments, and possible futures of the work. The comparisons between X.509 certificates and Federation Trust Infrastructure are particularly enlightening!

What does Presentation Exchange do and what parts of it do we actually need?

OAuth Security WorkshopI organized unconference sessions on Wednesday and Thursday at the 2023 OAuth Security Workshop on “What does Presentation Exchange do and what parts of it do we actually need?”. I facilitated primarily by creating an inventory features for discussion in advance, which you’ll find on slide 3. Notes from Wednesday’s session are on slide 4. Thursday we discussed functionality needed and not needed for presenting Verifiable Credentials (with the feature realizations not necessarily tied to Presentation Exchange), which you can find on slide 5. Notes from Thursday’s discussion are on the final two pages.

Thanks to everyone who participated for a great discussion. I think we all learned things!

The slides used as an interactive notepad during our discussions are available as PowerPoint and PDF.

Lifetime Achievement Award at EIC 2023

EIC 2023 LogoI was surprised and deeply honored to receive a Lifetime Achievement Award from Kuppinger Cole at EIC 2023. As I recalled when accepting the award, when Kim Cameron received the same award about a decade ago, he said from the podium “No, don’t do this! My career isn’t over! I’m not done contributing!” Kim always had a wicked wit. ;-)

Coincidentally, I described some of the achievements that led to the award during my keynote Touchstones Along My Identity Journey. After a couple of times of me saying “We won an award for that” during the keynote, I was amused that the audience would break out into laughter each subsequent time that I mentioned another award. Like this award, the audience’s reaction was unexpected and delightful.

EIC 2023 Lifetime Award

Smiling with EIC 2023 Lifetime Award

EIC 2023 Lifetime Award with Martin Kuppinger

EIC 2023 Awards with Rachelle Sellung

Touchstones Along My Identity Journey

EIC 2023 LogoI had the distinct honor of being invited to give a keynote talk at EIC 2023. The result was Touchstones Along My Identity Journey. My talk abstract was:

In 2005, Kim Cameron excitedly told me about digital identity and set my life on a course to “Build the Internet’s missing identity layer”. In this talk I’ll tell key stories from my identity journey — stories of the people, ideas, and lessons learned along the way. I’ll speak of technology and collaboration, usability and business models, solving problems people actually have, and building new ecosystems. Come with me on this journey of exploration, trials, triumphs, and humor as I recount touchstones of the human endeavor that is digital identity.

Kuppinger Cole has posted a video of my keynote on YouTube. I was pleased with how well it went. After the first few sentences, I was in the zone! I hope many of you find the messages in the talk useful.

My slides are also available in (PowerPoint) and PDF.

Special thanks go to the OpenID Foundation for supporting my trip to EIC this year and to designer Alistair Kincaid at MATTR for helping me transcend my usual black-bulleted-text-on-a-white-background presentation style!

EIC 2023 Keynote Photo

EIC 2023 Keynote Photo with Kim Cameron

EIC 2023 Keynote Photo for OAuth

Current Work and Future Trends in Selective Disclosure

EIC 2023 LogoThe session Current Work and Future Trends in Selective Disclosure at EIC 2023 covered a lot of foundational work happening in the space of Selective Disclosure right now. Selective Disclosure enables you to have a token with many claims (say, an ISO Mobile Drivers’ License (mDL)), and only release the claims necessary for the interaction — for instance, your birthdate but not your home address. Selective Disclosure enables Minimal Disclosure. This is sometimes realized using Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) but that’s not always necessary.

The agenda for the session was:

Our presentations are available in (PowerPoint) and PDF.

EIC 2023 Disclosure Issuer Holder Verifier Model

How do you know who to trust?

EIC 2023 LogoGiuseppe De Marco and I presented the session How do you know who to trust? at EIC 2023.

A key question when granting access to resources is ‘Who do you trust?’. It’s often important to know who the party is that you’re interacting with and whether they’ve agreed to the terms and conditions that apply when accessing a resource.

OpenID Connect enables identities of participants to be securely established but doesn’t answer the question of whether a participant is trusted to access a resource such as your personal data. A complementary mechanism is needed to do that. In small-scale and static deployments, it’s possible to keep a list of the trusted participants. However, in large-scale and dynamic deployments, that doesn’t scale.

This presentation described how the OpenID Connect Federation protocol enables scalable trust establishment with dynamic policies. It does so by employing trust hierarchies of authorities, each of which are independently administered. Examples of authorities are federation operators, organizations, departments within organizations, and individual sites.

Two OpenID Connect Federations are deployed in Italy, enabling secure access to digital services operated by Italian public and private services with Italian digital identities. This presentation described why OpenID Connect Federation was selected for them and how it meets their needs. OpenID Connect Federation is also being used by the GAIN PoC.

Our presentation is available in (PowerPoint) and PDF.

EIC 2023 Federation Photo

OpenID Presentations at April 2023 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentation at the Monday, April 17, 2023 OpenID Workshop at Microsoft:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, April 18, 2023:

JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) Working Group Reanimated

IETF logoI’m thrilled that the IETF has restarted the JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) Working Group. It’s chartered to work on JSON- and CBOR-based representations for Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs), selective disclosure enabling minimal disclosure, and non-correlatable presentation. The representations are planned to use the three-party model of Issuer, Holder, and Verifier utilized by Verifiable Credentials.

See the newly approved JOSE charter at The working group will be chaired by Karen O’Donoghue, John Bradley, and John Mattsson, with the assigned area director being Roman Danyliw.

I believe this is a great outcome because the JOSE working group participants already have expertise creating simple, widely-adopted JSON-based cryptographic formats, such as JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK). The new formats will be peers to JWS, JWE, and COSE, reusing elements that make sense, while enabling use of new cryptographic algorithms whose inputs and outputs are not representable in the existing JOSE and COSE formats.

If you’re interested in the work, please join the JOSE mailing list at if you’re not already a member. Also, plan to participate in IETF 116 Yokohama, where we should be able to have the first meeting of the reconstituted working group. I hope to see you there!

As background, the first step in the JOSE rechartering was the JSON Web Proofs (JWP) BoF at IETF 114 in Philadelphia sponsored by Security Area Director Roman Danyliw and chaired by Karen O’Donoghue and John Bradley, during which Jeremie Miller, Kristina Yasuda, Tobias Looker, and I presented. That was follwed by a Virtual Interim JWP BoF in October, 2022, review on the ietf-announce mailing list, and multiple IESG discussions.

All of which brings us back to the (now recurring!) question: “What Would JOSE Do?” Join us and be part of answering it!

What Would Jose Do?

OpenID Presentations at November 2022 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentation at the Monday, November 14, 2022 OpenID Workshop at VISA:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, November 15, 2022:

JSON Web Proofs BoF at IETF 114 in Philadelphia

IETF logoThis week at IETF 114 in Philadelphia, we held a Birds-of-a-Feather (BoF) session on JSON Web Proofs (JWPs). JSON Web Proofs are a JSON-based representation of cryptographic inputs and outputs that enable use of Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs), selective disclosure for minimal disclosure, and non-correlatable presentation. JWPs use the three-party model of Issuer, Holder, and Verifier utilized by Verifiable Credentials.

The BoF asked to reinstate the IETF JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) working group. We asked for this because the JOSE working group participants already have expertise creating simple, widely-adopted JSON-based cryptographic formats, such as JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK). The JWP format would be a peer to JWS and JWE, reusing elements that make sense, while enabling use of new cryptographic algorithms whose inputs and outputs are not representable in the existing JOSE formats.

Presentations given at the BoF were:

You can view the BoF minutes at A useful discussion ensued after the presentations. Unfortunately, we didn’t have time to finish the BoF in the one-hour slot. The BoF questions unanswered in the time allotted would have been along the lines of “Is the work appropriate for the IETF?”, “Is there interest in the work?”, and “Do we want to adopt the proposed charter?”. Discussion of those topics is now happening on the mailing list. Join it at to participate. Roman Danyliw, the Security Area Director who sponsored the BoF, had suggested that we hold a virtual interim BoF to complete the BoF process before IETF 115 in London. Hope to see you there!

The BoF Presenters:

JWP BoF Presenters

The BoF Participants, including the chairs:

JWP BoF Participants

OAuth DPoP Presentation at Identiverse 2022

OAuth logoHere’s the DPoP presentation that Pieter Kasselman and I gave at the 2022 Identiverse conference:

  • Bad actors are stealing your OAuth tokens, giving them control over your information – OAuth DPoP (Demonstration of Proof of Possession) is what we’re doing about it (PowerPoint) (PDF)

A few photographs that workation photographer Brian Campbell took during the presentation follow.

Mike Presenting:

Mike Presenting

Who is that masked man???

Who is that masked man???

Pieter Presenting:

Pieter Presenting

OAuth DPoP Specification Addressing WGLC Comments

OAuth logoBrian Campbell has published an updated OAuth DPoP draft addressing the Working Group Last Call (WGLC) comments received. All changes were editorial in nature. The most substantive change was further clarifying that either iat or nonce can be used alone in validating the timeliness of the proof, somewhat deemphasizing jti tracking.

As Brian reminded us during the OAuth Security Workshop today, the name DPoP was inspired by a Deutsche POP poster he saw on the S-Bahn during the March 2019 OAuth Security Workshop in Stuttgart:

Deutsche POP in Stuttgart

He considered it an auspicious sign seeing another Deutsche PoP sign in the Vienna U-Bahn during IETF 113 the same day WGLC was requested!

Deutsche POP in Vienna

The specification is available at:

OpenID Presentations at April 2022 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentations at the Monday, April 25, 2022 OpenID Workshop at Google:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, April 26, 2022:

Stories of Kim Cameron

Kim Cameron LaughingSince Kim’s passing, I’ve been reflecting on his impact on my life and remembering some of the things that made him special. Here’s a few stories I’d like to tell in his honor.

Kim was more important to my career and life than most people know. Conversations with him in early 2005 led me to leave Microsoft Research and join his quest to “Build the Internet’s missing identity layer” – a passion that still motivates me to this day.

Within days of me joining the identity quest, Kim asked me to go with him to the first gathering of the Identity Gang at PC Forum in Scottsdale, Arizona. Many of the people that I met there remain important in my professional and personal life! The first Internet Identity Workshop soon followed.

Kim taught me a lot about building positive working relationships with others. Early on, he told me to always try to find something nice to say to others. Showing his devious sense of humor, he said “Even if you are sure that their efforts are doomed to fail because of fatal assumptions on their part, you can at least say to them ‘You’re working on solving a really important problem!’ :-)” He modelled by example that consensus is much easier to achieve when you make allies rather than enemies. And besides, it’s a lot more fun for everyone that way!

Kim was always generous with his time and hospitality and lots of fun to be around. I remember he and Adele inviting visitors from Deutsche Telekom to their home overlooking the water in Bellevue. He organized a night at the opera for identity friends in Munich. He took my wife Becky and I and Tony Nadalin out to dinner at his favorite restaurant in Paris, La Coupole. He and Adele were the instigators behind many a fun evening. He had a love of life beyond compare!

At one point in my career, I was hoping to switch to a manager more supportive of my passion for standards work, and asked Kim if I could work for him. I’ll always remember his response: “Having you work for me would be great, because I wouldn’t have to manage you. But the problem is that then they’d make me have others work for me too. Managing people would be the death of me!”

This blog exists because Kim encouraged me to blog.

I once asked Kim why there were so many Canadians working in digital identity. He replied: “Every day as a Canadian, you think ‘What is it that makes me uniquely Canadian, as opposed to being American? Whereas Americans never give it a thought. Canadians are always thinking about identity.'”

Kim was a visionary and a person of uncommon common sense. His Information Card paradigm was ahead of its time. For instance, the “selecting cards within a wallet” metaphor that Windows CardSpace introduced is now widespread – appearing in platform and Web account selectors, as well as emerging “self-sovereign identity” wallets, containing digital identities that you control. The demos people are giving now sure look a lot like InfoCard demos from back in the day!

Kim was a big believer in privacy and giving people control over their own data (see the Laws of Identity). He championed the effort for Microsoft to acquire and use the U-Prove selective disclosure technology, and to make it freely available for others to use.

Kim was hands-on. To get practical experience with OpenID Connect, he wrote a complete OpenID Provider in 2018 and even got it certified! You can see the certification entry at for the “IEF Experimental Claimer V0.9” that he wrote.

Kim was highly valued by Microsoft’s leaders (and many others!). He briefly retired from Microsoft most of a decade ago, only to have the then-Executive Vice President of the Server and Tools division, Satya Nadella, immediately seek him out and ask him what it would take to convince him to return. Kim made his asks, the company agreed to them, and he was back within about a week. One of his asks resulted in the AAD business-to-customer (B2C) identity service in production use today. He also used to have regular one-on-ones with Bill Gates.

Kim wasn’t my mentor in any official capacity, but he was indeed my mentor in fact. I believe he saw potential in me and chose to take me under his wing and help me develop in oh so many ways. I’ll always be grateful for that, and most of all, for his friendship.

In September 2021 at the European Identity and Cloud (EIC) conference in Munich, Jackson Shaw and I remarked to each other that neither of us had heard from Kim in a while. I reached out to him, and he responded that his health was failing, without elaborating. Kim and I talked for a while on the phone after that. He encouraged me that the work we are doing now is really important, and to press forward quickly.

On October 25, 2021, Vittorio Bertocci organized an informal CardSpace team reunion in Redmond. Kim wished he could come but his health wasn’t up to travelling. Determined to include him in a meaningful way, I called him on my phone during the reunion and Kim spent about a half hour talking to most of the ~20 attendees in turn. They shared stories and laughed! As Vittorio said to me when we learned of his passing, we didn’t know then that we were saying goodbye.

P.S. Here’s a few of my favorite photos from the first event that Kim included me in:

Kim and Craig Burton Gesticulating Mike Jones, Drummond Reed, and Kim Dick Hardt Mike Jones Kim with Coffee

All images are courtesy of Doc Searls. Each photo links to the original.

OpenID Presentations at December 2021 OpenID Virtual Workshop

OpenID logoI gave the following presentations at the Thursday, December 9, 2021 OpenID Virtual Workshop:

OpenID and FIDO Presentation at October 2021 FIDO Plenary

OpenID logoFIDO logoI described the relationship between OpenID and FIDO during the October 21, 2021 FIDO Alliance plenary meeting, including how OpenID Connect and FIDO are complementary. In particular, I explained that using WebAuthn/FIDO authenticators to sign into OpenID Providers brings phishing resistance to millions of OpenID Relying Parties without them having to do anything!

The presentation was:

OpenID Connect Presentation at IIW XXXIII

OpenID logoI gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the 33rd Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, October 12, 2021:

The session was well attended. There was a good discussion about the use of passwordless authentication with OpenID Connect.

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