Archive for the 'OpenID' Category

August 20, 2020
OAuth 2.0 JWT Secured Authorization Request (JAR) sent to the RFC Editor

OAuth logoCongratulations to Nat Sakimura and John Bradley for progressing the OAuth 2.0 JWT Secured Authorization Request (JAR) specification from the working group through the IESG to the RFC Editor. This specification takes the JWT Request Object from Section 6 of OpenID Connect Core (Passing Request Parameters as JWTs) and makes this functionality available for pure OAuth 2.0 applications – and intentionally does so without introducing breaking changes.

This is one of a series of specifications bringing functionality originally developed for OpenID Connect to the OAuth 2.0 ecosystem. Other such specifications included OAuth 2.0 Dynamic Client Registration Protocol [RFC 7591] and OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server Metadata [RFC 8414].

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

Again, congratulations to Nat and John and the OAuth Working Group for this achievement!

July 7, 2020
Identiverse 2020 Talk: Enabling Scalable Multi-lateral Federations with OpenID Connect

OpenID logoMy Identiverse 2020 talk Enabling Scalable Multi-lateral Federations with OpenID Connect was just broadcast and is available for viewing. The talk abstract is:

Numerous large-scale multi-lateral identity federations are in production use today, primarily in the Research and Education sector. These include national federations, such as SWAMID in Sweden and InCommon in the US, some with thousands of sites, and inter-federations among dozens of federations, such as eduGAIN. Yet these existing federations are based on SAML 2 and require the federation operator to poll the participants for their metadata, concatenating it into a huge file that is distributed to all federation participants nightly – a brittle process with significant scalability problems.

Responding to demand from the Research and Education community to migrate from SAML 2 to the simpler OpenID Connect protocol, the OpenID Connect working group has created the OpenID Connect Federation specification to enable this. The new approach incorporates lessons learned from existing SAML 2 federations – especially using a new, scalable approach to federation metadata, in which organizations host their own signed metadata and federation operators in turn sign statements about the organizations that are participants in the federation. As Shibboleth author Scott Cantor publicly said at a federation conference, “Given all my experience, if I were to redo the metadata handling today, I would do it along the lines in the OpenID Connect Federation specification”.

This presentation will describe progress implementing and deploying OpenID Connect Federation, upcoming interop events and results, and next steps to complete the specification and foster production deployments. The resulting feedback from Identiverse participants on the approach will be highly valuable.

As a late-breaking addition, data from the June 2020 Federation interop event organized by Roland Hedberg was included in the presentation.

You can also view the presentation slides as PowerPoint or PDF.

May 21, 2020
Successful OpenID Foundation Virtual Workshop

OpenID logoI was pleased by the quality of the discussions and participation at the first OpenID Foundation Virtual Workshop. There were over 50 participants, with useful conversations happening both on the audio channel and in the chat. Topics included current work in the working groups, such as eKYC-IDA, FAPI, MODRNA, FastFed, Shared Signals and Events, and OpenID Connect), OpenID Certification, and a discussion on interactions between browser privacy developments and federated login. Thanks to all who participated!

Here’s my presentation on the OpenID Connect working group and OpenID Certification: (PowerPoint) (PDF).

Update: The presentations from the workshop are available at OIDF Virtual Workshop – May 21, 2020.

April 28, 2020
OpenID Presentation at IIW XXX

OpenID logoI gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the 30th Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, April 28, 2020:

I missed being able to gauge audience reactions by looking around the room but the virtualized session was still well attended by a good group of people, who let me know how OpenID Connect is relevant to what they’re doing.

March 3, 2020
Two New OAuth RFCs: MTLS (RFC 8705) and Resource Indicators (RFC 8707)

OAuth logoTwo widely used OAuth specifications have recently become RFCs. Here’s a bit about both specs.

RFC 8705: OAuth 2.0 Mutual-TLS Client Authentication and Certificate-Bound Access Tokens

Abstract: This document describes OAuth client authentication and certificate-bound access and refresh tokens using mutual Transport Layer Security (TLS) authentication with X.509 certificates. OAuth clients are provided a mechanism for authentication to the authorization server using mutual TLS, based on either self-signed certificates or public key infrastructure (PKI). OAuth authorization servers are provided a mechanism for binding access tokens to a client’s mutual-TLS certificate, and OAuth protected resources are provided a method for ensuring that such an access token presented to it was issued to the client presenting the token.

Client certificates are widely used in the financial industry to authenticate OAuth clients. Indeed, this specification was developed in part because it was needed by the OpenID Financial-Grade API (FAPI) specifications. It is in production use by numerous Open Banking deployments today.

RFC 8707: Resource Indicators for OAuth 2.0

Abstract: This document specifies an extension to the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework defining request parameters that enable a client to explicitly signal to an authorization server about the identity of the protected resource(s) to which it is requesting access.

This specification standardizes the “resource” request parameter that is used by Azure Active Directory (AAD) V1 to specify the target resource for an OAuth authorization request.

February 18, 2020
OpenID Connect Federation Keynote at January 2020 OpenID Japan Summit

OpenID logoI gave this keynote presentation at the January 2020 OpenID Japan Summit: Enabling Large-Scale Multi-Party Federations with OpenID Connect. View it in PowerPoint or PDF.

Thanks to Roland Hedberg for collaborating on the presentation with me and for being primary author of the OpenID Connect Federation specification.

And as a preview of coming attractions, I’ll also be presenting on OpenID Connect Federation at Identiverse in June 2020.

December 28, 2019
OpenID eKYC and Identity Assurance Working Group Formed

OpenID logoI’m pleased to report that the OpenID eKYC and Identity Assurance Working Group is up and running. The new working group is now the home for the OpenID Connect for Identity Assurance specification. This specification defines a representation for verified claims about end-users. This enables real-world use cases such as electronic driver’s licenses and digitally satisfying Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements.

See the post OpenID Connect for Identity Assurance now has a dedicated home for more information about the working group, including the working group call schedule.

October 21, 2019
OpenID Connect Federation draft 09 ready for your review

OpenID logoDraft 09 of the OpenID Connect Federation specification has been published at This version of the specification benefitted from in-person review by experts at IIW. Major changes were:

  • Separated entity configuration discovery from operations provided by the federation API.
  • Defined new authentication error codes.

The authors believe that this version should become the second Implementer’s Draft, in preparation for interop testing in the coming year. Please review!

October 10, 2019
Using OpenID Connect Self-Issued to Achieve DID Auth

OpenID logoMy co-authors and I recently competed the paper Using OpenID Connect Self-Issued to Achieve DID Auth, which was created as a result of discussions at the eighth Rebooting the Web of Trust workshop. The paper’s abstract is:

Proving control of a DID requires proving ownership of a private key corresponding to a public key for the DID. Of course, this could be done with a new DID-specific protocol. However, standard protocols for proving ownership of a public/private key pair already exist.

This paper describes how to reuse the Self-Issued OpenID Connect (SIOP) specification and related protocol messages to prove control of a DID. It describes both why and how to do this. Related topics, such as release of claims, are also touched upon.

Several people came to the workshop wanting to explore how to use the OpenID Connect Self-Issued OpenID Provider functionality to prove control of a Decentralized Identifier (DID), including myself. The paper describes the approach being taken by a number of groups using DIDs, including Microsoft. The paper’s publication is timely, as the W3C DID Working Group has just formed to create a DID standard. Microsoft is an active member of the working group.

Special thanks to Dmitri Zagidulin for getting the paper over the finish line!

October 1, 2019
OpenID Presentations at September 2019 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentations at the Monday, September 30, 2019 OpenID Workshop at Verizon Media:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, October 1, 2019:

June 25, 2019
OpenID Connect Federation Progress at TNC19

OpenID logoCheck out the post OpenID Connect Federation Progress describing the recent updates that Roland Hedberg and I made to the OpenID Connect Federation 1.0 specification. We used the TNC19 conference – a gathering of federation experts – as a venue to get together to review and refine the specification. Besides getting lots done on the spec, I also really enjoyed the TNC conference and its attendees!

Given that the syntax and semantics should now be stable, it’s my hope that early adopters will start kicking the tires – building implementations and making trial deployments. I can’t wait for the useful feedback that results!

May 16, 2019
OpenID Presentations at 2019 European Identity and Cloud (EIC) Conference

OpenID logoI gave the following presentations at the May 14, 2019 OpenID Workshop at the 2019 European Identity and Cloud (EIC) conference:

This deck was also prepared but not presented, due to time limitations:

May 6, 2019
Azure Active Directory Achieves OpenID Certification

OpenID Certified logoI’m delighted to report that Azure Active Directory (AAD) has achieved OpenID Certification. This is true both of the AAD V1 identity provider, which enables sign-in with organization identities, and the AAD V2 identity provider, which enables sign-in with both personal and organizational identities. See the certification listings and the Microsoft identity platform announcement.

While AAD has supported OpenID Connect for years, the push to achieve OpenID Certification closed a number of gaps in AAD’s feature set — mostly notably, adding support for the UserInfo Endpoint to AAD V2. This work was part of Microsoft’s commitment to utilizing widely-adopted open identity standards. Kudos to the AAD engineering team for bringing this important developer-focused work to completion!

April 30, 2019
OpenID Presentations at April 2019 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentations at the Monday, April 29, 2019 OpenID Workshop at Verizon Media:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, April 30, 2019:

March 12, 2019
Security Event Token (SET) delivery specifications updated in preparation for IETF 104

IETF logoThe two Security Event Token (SET) delivery specifications have been updated to address working group feedback received, in preparation for discussions at IETF 104 in Prague. The Push Delivery spec went through working group last call (WGLC). It has been updated to incorporate the WGLC comments. Changes made are summarized in the spec change log, the contents of which were also posted to the working group mailing list. Thanks to Annabelle Backman for the edits to the Push Delivery spec.

It’s worth noting that the Push Delivery spec and the Security Event Token (SET) are now being used in early Risk and Incident Sharing and Coordination (RISC) deployments, including between Google and Adobe. See the article about these deployments by Mat Honan of BuzzFeed.

Changes to the Poll Delivery spec are also summarized in that spec’s change log, which contains:

  • Removed vestigial language remaining from when the push and poll delivery methods were defined in a common specification.
  • Replaced remaining uses of the terms Event Transmitter and Event Recipient with the correct terms SET Transmitter and SET Recipient.
  • Removed uses of the unnecessary term “Event Stream”.
  • Removed dependencies between the semantics of maxEvents and returnImmediately.
  • Said that PII in SETs is to be encrypted with TLS, JWE, or both.
  • Corrected grammar and spelling errors.

The specifications are available at:

HTML-formatted versions are also available at:

December 3, 2018
OpenID Connect Federation Specification

OpenID logoThe OpenID Connect Federation 1.0 specification is being developed to enable large-scale federations to be deployed using OpenID Connect. It enables trust among federation participants to be established through signed statements made by federation operators about federation participants.

The design of this specification builds upon the experiences gained in operating large-scale SAML 2.0 federations, and indeed, is authored by people having practical experience with these federations. The primary authors are Roland Hedberg and Andreas Åkre Solberg, with additional contributions by Samuel Gulliksson, John Bradley, and myself, as well as members of the OpenID Connect working group, which is the home of the specification.

A key innovation that differentiates OpenID Connect federations from most SAML 2.0 federations is that OpenID Connect federation employs hierarchal metadata, where participants directly publish statements about themselves, versus the aggregated metadata approach used by many SAML 2.0 federations, where the federation operator publishes a single file concatenating all the metadata for all the federation participants.

The specification was just updated so that the latest version can be discussed at a SURFnet OpenID Connect “Wisdom of the Crowd” session today.

The latest version of specification is available at:

This URL always points to the latest published version:

Please review and/or implement this important specification and send your feedback to the OpenID Connect working group!

October 23, 2018
OpenID Connect Introduction at October 2018 IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, October 23, 2018:

October 8, 2018
The core Token Binding specs are now RFCs 8471, 8472, and 8473

IETF logoThe IETF Token Binding working group has completed the core Token Binding specifications. These new standards are:

  • RFC 8471: The Token Binding Protocol Version 1.0
  • RFC 8472: Transport Layer Security (TLS) Extension for Token Binding Protocol Negotiation
  • RFC 8473: Token Binding over HTTP

As Alex Simons recently wrote, it’s time for token binding. Especially now that the core specs are done, now’s the time for platforms and applications to deploy Token Binding. This will enable replacing bearer tokens, which can be stolen and reused, with Token Bound tokens, which are useless if stolen. This is a huge security benefit applicable to any tokens used over TLS, including browser cookies, OAuth access tokens and refresh tokens, and OpenID Connect ID Tokens.

Congratulations especially to the editors Andrei Popov, Dirk Balfanz, Jeff Hodges, Magnus Nyström, and Nick Harper and the chairs John Bradley and Leif Johansson for getting this done!

I likewise look forward to timely completion of related Token Binding specifications, which enable use of Token Binding with TLS 1.3, with OAuth 2.0, and with OpenID Connect.

September 29, 2018
Vote to update OpenID IPR Policy document now

A quick reminder that the vote to approve updates to the OpenID IPR Policy document is under way. If you’re an OpenID Foundation member, I encourage you to vote to approve the updates now at

As described in the OpenID Foundation post Proposed Revisions to OpenID IPR Policy Document, the updates enable the use of electronic signatures on contributor agreements instead of requiring on-paper signatures and simplify the descriptions of working group contributors, all without changing the IPR rights of any party.

The foundation needs 30% of the membership to vote in order for the changes to take effect, so please take a moment and vote now. Thanks!

August 21, 2018
It’s Time for Token Binding

IETF logoCheck out Alex Simons’ and Pamela Dingle’s blog post “It’s Time for Token Binding”. Now that the IETF Token Binding specs are essentially done, it’s time to ask those who write TLS software you use to ship Token Binding support soon, if they haven’t already done so.

Token Binding in a nutshell: When an attacker steals a bearer token sent over TLS, he can use it; when an attacker steals a Token Bound token, it’s useless to him.

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