TOC 
JOSE Working GroupM. Jones
Internet-DraftMicrosoft
Intended status: Standards TrackMarch 2, 2014
Expires: September 3, 2014 


JSON Web Key (JWK)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-22

Abstract

A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification and IANA registries defined by that specification.

Status of this Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work in progress.”

This Internet-Draft will expire on September 3, 2014.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.



Table of Contents

1.  Introduction
    1.1.  Notational Conventions
2.  Terminology
3.  JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
    3.1.  "kty" (Key Type) Parameter
    3.2.  "use" (Public Key Use) Parameter
    3.3.  "key_ops" (Key Operations) Parameter
    3.4.  "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter
    3.5.  "kid" (Key ID) Parameter
    3.6.  "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter
    3.7.  "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
    3.8.  "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter
4.  JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format
    4.1.  "keys" Parameter
5.  String Comparison Rules
6.  Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats
7.  IANA Considerations
    7.1.  JSON Web Key Parameters Registry
        7.1.1.  Registration Template
        7.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents
    7.2.  JSON Web Key Use Registry
        7.2.1.  Registration Template
        7.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents
    7.3.  JSON Web Key Operations Registry
        7.3.1.  Registration Template
        7.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents
    7.4.  JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry
        7.4.1.  Registration Template
        7.4.2.  Initial Registry Contents
    7.5.  Media Type Registration
        7.5.1.  Registry Contents
8.  Security Considerations
9.  References
    9.1.  Normative References
    9.2.  Informative References
Appendix A.  Example JSON Web Key Sets
    A.1.  Example Public Keys
    A.2.  Example Private Keys
    A.3.  Example Symmetric Keys
Appendix B.  Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
Appendix C.  Example Encrypted RSA Private Key
    C.1.  Plaintext RSA Private Key
    C.2.  JWE Header
    C.3.  Content Encryption Key (CEK)
    C.4.  Key Derivation
    C.5.  Key Encryption
    C.6.  Initialization Vector
    C.7.  Additional Authenticated Data
    C.8.  Content Encryption
    C.9.  Complete Representation
Appendix D.  Acknowledgements
Appendix E.  Document History
§  Author's Address




 TOC 

1.  Introduction

A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC7158] (Bray, T., “The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format,” March 2014.) data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] (Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” March 2014.) specification and IANA registries defined by that specification.

Goals for this specification do not include representing certificate chains, representing certified keys, and replacing X.509 certificates.

JWKs and JWK Sets are used in the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] (Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “JSON Web Signature (JWS),” March 2014.) and JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] (Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, “JSON Web Encryption (JWE),” March 2014.) specifications.

Names defined by this specification are short because a core goal is for the resulting representations to be compact.



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1.1.  Notational Conventions

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119] (Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,” March 1997.). If these words are used without being spelled in uppercase then they are to be interpreted with their normal natural language meanings.

BASE64URL(OCTETS) denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per Section 2 (Terminology).

UTF8(STRING) denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629] (Yergeau, F., “UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646,” November 2003.) representation of STRING.

ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [USASCII] (American National Standards Institute, “Coded Character Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Interchange,” 1986.) representation of STRING.

The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B.



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2.  Terminology

These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] (Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “JSON Web Signature (JWS),” March 2014.) specification are incorporated into this specification: "Base64url Encoding" and "Collision-Resistant Name".

These terms are defined for use by this specification:

JSON Web Key (JWK)
A JSON object that represents a cryptographic key.
JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set)
A JSON object that contains an array of JWKs as the value of its keys member.



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3.  JSON Web Key (JWK) Format

A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object. The members of the object represent properties of the key, including its value. This document defines the key parameters that are not algorithm specific, and thus common to many keys.

In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that are specific to the kind of key being represented. These members represent the parameters of the key. Section 6 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] (Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” March 2014.) specification defines multiple kinds of cryptographic keys and their associated members.

The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; recipients MUST either reject JWKs with duplicate member names or use a JSON parser that returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as specified in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 [ECMAScript] (Ecma International, “ECMAScript Language Specification, 5.1 Edition,” June 2011.).

Additional members can be present in the JWK; if not understood by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member names used for representing key parameters for different keys types need not be distinct. Any new member name should either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1 (JSON Web Key Parameters Registry) or be a value that contains a Collision-Resistant Name.



 TOC 

3.1.  "kty" (Key Type) Parameter

The kty (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm family used with the key. kty values should either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry defined in [JWA] (Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” March 2014.) or be a value that contains a Collision-Resistant Name. The kty value is a case-sensitive string. This member MUST be present in a JWK.

A list of defined kty values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry defined in [JWA] (Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” March 2014.); the initial contents of this registry are the values defined in Section 6.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] (Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” March 2014.) specification.

The key type definitions include specification of the members to be used for those key types. Additional members used with kty values can also be found in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1 (JSON Web Key Parameters Registry).



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3.2.  "use" (Public Key Use) Parameter

The use (public key use) member identifies the intended use of the public key. The use parameter is intended for use cases in which it is useful to distinguish between public signing keys and public encryption keys. It is not intended for use cases in which private or symmetric keys may also be present.

Values defined by this specification are:

Other values MAY be used. Public Key Use values can be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Use registry defined in Section 7.2 (JSON Web Key Use Registry). The use value is a case-sensitive string. Use of the use member is OPTIONAL, unless the application requires its presence.

When a key is used to wrap another key and a key use designation for the first key is desired, the enc (encryption) key use value SHOULD be used, since key wrapping is a kind of encryption. The enc value SHOULD also be used for public keys used for key agreement operations. (The alg member can be used to specify the particular cryptographic operation to be performed, when desired.)



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3.3.  "key_ops" (Key Operations) Parameter

The key_ops (key operations) member identifies the operations(s) that the key is intended to be used for. The key_ops parameter is intended for use cases in which public, private, or symmetric keys may be present.

Its value is an array of key operation values. Values defined by this specification are:

(Note that the key_ops values intentionally match the KeyUsage values defined in the Web Cryptography API (Sleevi, R., “Web Cryptography API,” December 2013.) [WebCrypto] specification.)

Other values MAY be used. Key operation values can be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Operations registry defined in Section 7.3 (JSON Web Key Operations Registry). The key operation values are case-sensitive strings. Duplicate key operation values MUST NOT be present in the array.

Use of the key_ops member is OPTIONAL, unless the application requires its presence.

Multiple unrelated key operations SHOULD NOT be specified for a key because of the potential vulnerabilities associated with using the same key with multiple algorithms. Thus, the combinations sign with verify, encrypt with decrypt, and wrapKey with unwrapKey are permitted, but other combinations SHOULD NOT be used.

The use and key_ops JWK members SHOULD NOT be used together. Applications should specify which of these members they use, if either is to be used by the application.



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3.4.  "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter

The alg (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for use with the key. The values used should either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry defined in [JWA] (Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” March 2014.) or be a value that contains a Collision-Resistant Name. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.



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3.5.  "kid" (Key ID) Parameter

The kid (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK Set during key rollover. The structure of the kid value is unspecified. When kid values are used within a JWK Set, different keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct kid values. (One example in which different keys might use the same kid value is if they have different kty (key type) values but are considered to be equivalent alternatives by the application using them.) The kid value is a case-sensitive string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.

When used with JWS or JWE, the kid value is used to match a JWS or JWE kid Header Parameter value.



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3.6.  "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter

The x5u (X.509 URL) member is a URI [RFC3986] (Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” January 2005.) that refers to a resource for an X.509 public key certificate or certificate chain [RFC5280] (Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile,” May 2008.). The identified resource MUST provide a representation of the certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280 (Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile,” May 2008.) [RFC5280] in PEM encoded form [RFC1421] (Linn, J., “Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures,” February 1993.). The key in the first certificate MUST match the public key represented by other members of the JWK. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST provide integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the certificate MUST use TLS [RFC2818] (Rescorla, E., “HTTP Over TLS,” May 2000.) [RFC5246] (Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, “The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2,” August 2008.); the identity of the server MUST be validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818] (Rescorla, E., “HTTP Over TLS,” May 2000.). Use of this member is OPTIONAL.

While there is no requirement that members other than those representing the public key be populated when an x5u member is present, doing so may improve interoperability for applications that do not handle PKIX certificates. If other members are present, the contents of those members MUST be semantically consistent with the related fields in the first certificate. For instance, if the use member is present, then it needs to allow for only a subset of the usages that are permitted by the certificate. Similarly, if the alg member is present, it should represent an algorithm that the certificate allows.



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3.7.  "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter

The x5c (X.509 Certificate Chain) member contains a chain of one or more PKIX certificates [RFC5280] (Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile,” May 2008.). The certificate chain is represented as a JSON array of certificate value strings. Each string in the array is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648] (Josefsson, S., “The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings,” October 2006.) Section 4 -- not base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] (International Telecommunications Union, “Information Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER),” 1994.) PKIX certificate value. The PKIX certificate containing the key value MUST be the first certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the previous one. The key in the first certificate MUST match the public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.

As with the x5u member, members other than those representing the public key may also be populated when an x5c member is present. If other members are present, the contents of those members MUST be semantically consistent with the related fields in the first certificate. See the last paragraph of Section 3.6 ("x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter) for additional guidance on this.



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3.8.  "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter

The x5t (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) member is a base64url encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER encoding of an X.509 certificate [RFC5280] (Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile,” May 2008.). The key in the certificate MUST match the public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.

If, in the future, certificate thumbprints need to be computed using hash functions other than SHA-1, it is suggested that additional related JWK parameters be defined for that purpose. For example, it is suggested that a new x5t#S256 (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint using SHA-256) JWK parameter could be defined by registering it in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1 (JSON Web Key Parameters Registry).

As with the x5u member, members other than those representing the public key may also be populated when an x5t member is present. If other members are present, the contents of those members MUST be semantically consistent with the related fields in the referenced certificate. See the last paragraph of Section 3.6 ("x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter) for additional guidance on this.



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4.  JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format

A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object representing a set of JWKs. The JSON object MUST have a keys member, which is an array of JWK objects.

The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; recipients MUST either reject JWK Sets with duplicate member names or use a JSON parser that returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as specified in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 [ECMAScript] (Ecma International, “ECMAScript Language Specification, 5.1 Edition,” June 2011.).

Additional members can be present in the JWK Set; if not understood by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets should either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry defined in Section 7.4 (JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry) or be a value that contains a Collision-Resistant Name.

Implementations SHOULD ignore JWKs within a JWK Set that use kty (key type) values that are not understood by them, are missing required members, or for which values are out of the supported ranges.



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4.1.  "keys" Parameter

The value of the keys member is an array of JWK values. By default, the order of the JWK values within the array does not imply an order of preference among them, although applications of JWK Sets can choose to assign a meaning to the order for their purposes, if desired. This member MUST be present in a JWK Set.



 TOC 

5.  String Comparison Rules

The string comparison rules for this specification are the same as those defined in Section 5.3 of [JWS] (Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “JSON Web Signature (JWS),” March 2014.).



 TOC 

6.  Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats

JWKs containing non-public key material will need to be encrypted in some contexts to prevent the disclosure of private or symmetric key values to unintended parties. The use of an Encrypted JWK, which is a JWE with the UTF-8 encoding of a JWK as its plaintext value, is recommended for this purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWKs is identical to the processing of other JWEs. A cty (content type) Header Parameter value of jwk+json MUST be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is a JWK, unless the application knows that the encrypted content is a JWK by another means or convention.

JWK Sets containing non-public key material will similarly need to be encrypted. The use of an Encrypted JWK Set, which is a JWE with the UTF-8 encoding of a JWK Set as its plaintext value, is recommended for this purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWK Sets is identical to the processing of other JWEs. A cty (content type) Header Parameter value of jwk-set+json MUST be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is a JWK Set, unless the application knows that the encrypted content is a JWK Set by another means or convention.

See Appendix C (Example Encrypted RSA Private Key) for an example encrypted JWK.



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7.  IANA Considerations

The following registration procedure is used for all the registries established by this specification.

Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] (Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, “Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs,” May 2008.) after a two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a specification will be published.

Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request for access token type: example"). [[ Note to the RFC Editor: The name of the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA. Suggested name: jose-reg-review. ]]

Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for a period longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention (using the iesg@iesg.org mailing list) for resolution.

Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Expert(s) includes determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing functionality, determining whether it is likely to be of general applicability or whether it is useful only for a single application, and whether the registration makes sense.

IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s) and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing list.

It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are able to represent the perspectives of different applications using this specification, in order to enable broadly-informed review of registration decisions. In cases where a registration decision could be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular Expert, that Expert should defer to the judgment of the other Expert(s).



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7.1.  JSON Web Key Parameters Registry

This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry for JWK parameter names. The registry records the parameter name, the key type(s) that the parameter is used with, and a reference to the specification that defines it. It also records whether the parameter conveys public or private information. This specification registers the parameter names defined in Section 3 (JSON Web Key (JWK) Format). The same JWK parameter name may be registered multiple times, provided that duplicate parameter registrations are only for key type specific JWK parameters; in this case, the meaning of the duplicate parameter name is disambiguated by the kty value of the JWK containing it.



 TOC 

7.1.1.  Registration Template

Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this particular case. However, matching names may be registered, provided that the accompanying sets of kty values that the Parameter Name is used with are disjoint; for the purposes of matching kty values, "*" matches all values.
Parameter Description:
Brief description of the parameter (e.g., "Example description").
Used with "kty" Value(s):
The key type parameter value(s) that the parameter name is to be used with, or the value "*" if the parameter value is used with all key types. Values may not match other registered kty values in a case-insensitive manner when the registered Parameter Name is the same (including when the Parameter Name matches in a case-insensitive manner) unless the Designated Expert(s) state that there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this particular case.
Parameter Information Class:
Registers whether the parameter conveys public or private information. Its value must be one the words Public or Private.
Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also be included but is not required.



 TOC 

7.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents



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7.2.  JSON Web Key Use Registry

This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Use registry for JWK use (public key use) member values. The registry records the public key use value and a reference to the specification that defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined in Section 3.2 ("use" (Public Key Use) Parameter).



 TOC 

7.2.1.  Registration Template

Use Member Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this particular case.
Use Description:
Brief description of the use (e.g., "Example description").
Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also be included but is not required.



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7.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents



 TOC 

7.3.  JSON Web Key Operations Registry

This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Operations registry for values of JWK key_ops array elements. The registry records the key operation value and a reference to the specification that defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined in Section 3.3 ("key_ops" (Key Operations) Parameter).



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7.3.1.  Registration Template

Key Operation Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this particular case.
Key Operation Description:
Brief description of the key operation (e.g., "Example description").
Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also be included but is not required.



 TOC 

7.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents



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7.4.  JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry

This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry for JWK Set parameter names. The registry records the parameter name and a reference to the specification that defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined in Section 4 (JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format).



 TOC 

7.4.1.  Registration Template

Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this particular case.
Parameter Description:
Brief description of the parameter (e.g., "Example description").
Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also be included but is not required.



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7.4.2.  Initial Registry Contents



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7.5.  Media Type Registration



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7.5.1.  Registry Contents

This specification registers the application/jwk+json and application/jwk-set+json Media Types [RFC2046] (Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, “Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types,” November 1996.) in the MIME Media Types registry [IANA.MediaTypes] (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), “MIME Media Types,” 2005.), which can be used to indicate, respectively, that the content is a JWK or a JWK Set.



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8.  Security Considerations

All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but some significant considerations are listed here.

One should place no more trust in the data associated with a key than in than the method by which it was obtained and in the trustworthiness of the entity asserting an association with the key. Any data associated with a key that is obtained in an untrusted manner should be treated with skepticism.

Private and symmetric keys MUST be protected from disclosure to unintended parties. One recommended means of doing so is to encrypt JWKs or JWK Sets containing them by using the JWK or JWK Set value as the plaintext of a JWE.

The security considerations in RFC 3447 (Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, “Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.1,” February 2003.) [RFC3447] and RFC 6030 (Hoyer, P., Pei, M., and S. Machani, “Portable Symmetric Key Container (PSKC),” October 2010.) [RFC6030] about protecting private and symmetric keys, key usage, and information leakage also apply to this specification.

The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0 (Cantor, S., Roessler, T., Eastlake, D., Yiu, K., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Datta, P., and F. Hirsch, “XML Signature Syntax and Processing Version 2.0,” January 2012.) [W3C.CR‑xmldsig‑core2‑20120124], about key representations also apply to this specification, other than those that are XML specific.

The TLS Requirements in [JWS] (Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “JSON Web Signature (JWS),” March 2014.) also apply to this specification.



 TOC 

9.  References



 TOC 

9.1. Normative References

[ECMAScript] Ecma International, “ECMAScript Language Specification, 5.1 Edition,” ECMA 262, June 2011 (HTML, PDF).
[IANA.MediaTypes] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), “MIME Media Types,” 2005.
[ITU.X690.1994] International Telecommunications Union, “Information Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER),” ITU-T Recommendation X.690, 1994.
[JWA] Jones, M., “JSON Web Algorithms (JWA),” draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress), March 2014 (HTML).
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, “JSON Web Encryption (JWE),” draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption (work in progress), March 2014 (HTML).
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “JSON Web Signature (JWS),” draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work in progress), March 2014 (HTML).
[RFC1421] Linn, J., “Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures,” RFC 1421, February 1993 (TXT).
[RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, “Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types,” RFC 2046, November 1996 (TXT).
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,” BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997 (TXT, HTML, XML).
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., “HTTP Over TLS,” RFC 2818, May 2000 (TXT).
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., “UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646,” STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003 (TXT).
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005 (TXT, HTML, XML).
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., “The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings,” RFC 4648, October 2006 (TXT).
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, “The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2,” RFC 5246, August 2008 (TXT).
[RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile,” RFC 5280, May 2008 (TXT).
[RFC7158] Bray, T., “The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format,” RFC 7158, March 2014 (TXT).
[USASCII] American National Standards Institute, “Coded Character Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Interchange,” ANSI X3.4, 1986.


 TOC 

9.2. Informative References

[MagicSignatures] Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, “Magic Signatures,” January 2011.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, “Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.1,” RFC 3447, February 2003 (TXT).
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, “Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs,” BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008 (TXT).
[RFC6030] Hoyer, P., Pei, M., and S. Machani, “Portable Symmetric Key Container (PSKC),” RFC 6030, October 2010 (TXT).
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124] Cantor, S., Roessler, T., Eastlake, D., Yiu, K., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Datta, P., and F. Hirsch, “XML Signature Syntax and Processing Version 2.0,” World Wide Web Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012 (HTML).
[WebCrypto] Sleevi, R., “Web Cryptography API,” World Wide Web Consortium Draft, December 2013 (HTML).


 TOC 

Appendix A.  Example JSON Web Key Sets



 TOC 

A.1.  Example Public Keys

The following example JWK Set contains two public keys represented as JWKs: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an RSA algorithm. The first specifies that the key is to be used for encryption. The second specifies that the key is to be used with the RS256 algorithm. Both provide a Key ID for key matching purposes. In both cases, integers are represented using the base64url encoding of their big endian representations. (Long lines are broken are for display purposes only.)

  {"keys":
    [
      {"kty":"EC",
       "crv":"P-256",
       "x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
       "y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
       "use":"enc",
       "kid":"1"},

      {"kty":"RSA",
       "n": "0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx
  4cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMs
  tn64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2
  QvzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbI
  SD08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqb
  w0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
       "e":"AQAB",
       "alg":"RS256",
       "kid":"2011-04-29"}
    ]
  }


 TOC 

A.2.  Example Private Keys

The following example JWK Set contains two keys represented as JWKs containing both public and private key values: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an RSA algorithm. This example extends the example in the previous section, adding private key values. (Line breaks are for display purposes only.)

  {"keys":
    [
      {"kty":"EC",
       "crv":"P-256",
       "x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
       "y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
       "d":"870MB6gfuTJ4HtUnUvYMyJpr5eUZNP4Bk43bVdj3eAE",
       "use":"enc",
       "kid":"1"},

      {"kty":"RSA",
       "n":"0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx4
  cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMst
  n64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2Q
  vzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbIS
  D08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqbw
  0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
       "e":"AQAB",
       "d":"X4cTteJY_gn4FYPsXB8rdXix5vwsg1FLN5E3EaG6RJoVH-HLLKD9
  M7dx5oo7GURknchnrRweUkC7hT5fJLM0WbFAKNLWY2vv7B6NqXSzUvxT0_YSfqij
  wp3RTzlBaCxWp4doFk5N2o8Gy_nHNKroADIkJ46pRUohsXywbReAdYaMwFs9tv8d
  _cPVY3i07a3t8MN6TNwm0dSawm9v47UiCl3Sk5ZiG7xojPLu4sbg1U2jx4IBTNBz
  nbJSzFHK66jT8bgkuqsk0GjskDJk19Z4qwjwbsnn4j2WBii3RL-Us2lGVkY8fkFz
  me1z0HbIkfz0Y6mqnOYtqc0X4jfcKoAC8Q",
       "p":"83i-7IvMGXoMXCskv73TKr8637FiO7Z27zv8oj6pbWUQyLPQBQxtPV
  nwD20R-60eTDmD2ujnMt5PoqMrm8RfmNhVWDtjjMmCMjOpSXicFHj7XOuVIYQyqV
  WlWEh6dN36GVZYk93N8Bc9vY41xy8B9RzzOGVQzXvNEvn7O0nVbfs",
       "q":"3dfOR9cuYq-0S-mkFLzgItgMEfFzB2q3hWehMuG0oCuqnb3vobLyum
  qjVZQO1dIrdwgTnCdpYzBcOfW5r370AFXjiWft_NGEiovonizhKpo9VVS78TzFgx
  kIdrecRezsZ-1kYd_s1qDbxtkDEgfAITAG9LUnADun4vIcb6yelxk",
       "dp":"G4sPXkc6Ya9y8oJW9_ILj4xuppu0lzi_H7VTkS8xj5SdX3coE0oim
  YwxIi2emTAue0UOa5dpgFGyBJ4c8tQ2VF402XRugKDTP8akYhFo5tAA77Qe_Nmtu
  YZc3C3m3I24G2GvR5sSDxUyAN2zq8Lfn9EUms6rY3Ob8YeiKkTiBj0",
       "dq":"s9lAH9fggBsoFR8Oac2R_E2gw282rT2kGOAhvIllETE1efrA6huUU
  vMfBcMpn8lqeW6vzznYY5SSQF7pMdC_agI3nG8Ibp1BUb0JUiraRNqUfLhcQb_d9
  GF4Dh7e74WbRsobRonujTYN1xCaP6TO61jvWrX-L18txXw494Q_cgk",
       "qi":"GyM_p6JrXySiz1toFgKbWV-JdI3jQ4ypu9rbMWx3rQJBfmt0FoYzg
  UIZEVFEcOqwemRN81zoDAaa-Bk0KWNGDjJHZDdDmFhW3AN7lI-puxk_mHZGJ11rx
  yR8O55XLSe3SPmRfKwZI6yU24ZxvQKFYItdldUKGzO6Ia6zTKhAVRU",
       "alg":"RS256",
       "kid":"2011-04-29"}
    ]
  }


 TOC 

A.3.  Example Symmetric Keys

The following example JWK Set contains two symmetric keys represented as JWKs: one designated as being for use with the AES Key Wrap algorithm and a second one that is an HMAC key. (Line breaks are for display purposes only.)

  {"keys":
    [
      {"kty":"oct",
       "alg":"A128KW",
       "k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg"},

      {"kty":"oct",
       "k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75
  aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow",
       "kid":"HMAC key used in JWS A.1 example"}
    ]
  }


 TOC 

Appendix B.  Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter

The following is an example of a JWK with a RSA signing key represented both as an RSA public key and as an X.509 certificate using the x5c parameter:

  {"kty":"RSA",
   "use":"sig",
   "kid":"1b94c",
   "n":"vrjOfz9Ccdgx5nQudyhdoR17V-IubWMeOZCwX_jj0hgAsz2J_pqYW08
   PLbK_PdiVGKPrqzmDIsLI7sA25VEnHU1uCLNwBuUiCO11_-7dYbsr4iJmG0Q
   u2j8DsVyT1azpJC_NG84Ty5KKthuCaPod7iI7w0LK9orSMhBEwwZDCxTWq4a
   YWAchc8t-emd9qOvWtVMDC2BXksRngh6X5bUYLy6AyHKvj-nUy1wgzjYQDwH
   MTplCoLtU-o-8SNnZ1tmRoGE9uJkBLdh5gFENabWnU5m1ZqZPdwS-qo-meMv
   VfJb6jJVWRpl2SUtCnYG2C32qvbWbjZ_jBPD5eunqsIo1vQ",
   "e":"AQAB",
   "x5c":
    ["MIIDQjCCAiqgAwIBAgIGATz/FuLiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMGIxCzAJB
    gNVBAYTAlVTMQswCQYDVQQIEwJDTzEPMA0GA1UEBxMGRGVudmVyMRwwGgYD
    VQQKExNQaW5nIElkZW50aXR5IENvcnAuMRcwFQYDVQQDEw5CcmlhbiBDYW1
    wYmVsbDAeFw0xMzAyMjEyMzI5MTVaFw0xODA4MTQyMjI5MTVaMGIxCzAJBg
    NVBAYTAlVTMQswCQYDVQQIEwJDTzEPMA0GA1UEBxMGRGVudmVyMRwwGgYDV
    QQKExNQaW5nIElkZW50aXR5IENvcnAuMRcwFQYDVQQDEw5CcmlhbiBDYW1w
    YmVsbDCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAL64zn8/QnH
    YMeZ0LncoXaEde1fiLm1jHjmQsF/449IYALM9if6amFtPDy2yvz3YlRij66
    s5gyLCyO7ANuVRJx1NbgizcAblIgjtdf/u3WG7K+IiZhtELto/A7Fck9Ws6
    SQvzRvOE8uSirYbgmj6He4iO8NCyvaK0jIQRMMGQwsU1quGmFgHIXPLfnpn
    fajr1rVTAwtgV5LEZ4Iel+W1GC8ugMhyr4/p1MtcIM42EA8BzE6ZQqC7VPq
    PvEjZ2dbZkaBhPbiZAS3YeYBRDWm1p1OZtWamT3cEvqqPpnjL1XyW+oyVVk
    aZdklLQp2Btgt9qr21m42f4wTw+Xrp6rCKNb0CAwEAATANBgkqhkiG9w0BA
    QUFAAOCAQEAh8zGlfSlcI0o3rYDPBB07aXNswb4ECNIKG0CETTUxmXl9KUL
    +9gGlqCz5iWLOgWsnrcKcY0vXPG9J1r9AqBNTqNgHq2G03X09266X5CpOe1
    zFo+Owb1zxtp3PehFdfQJ610CDLEaS9V9Rqp17hCyybEpOGVwe8fnk+fbEL
    2Bo3UPGrpsHzUoaGpDftmWssZkhpBJKVMJyf/RuP2SmmaIzmnw9JiSlYhzo
    4tpzd5rFXhjRbg4zW9C+2qok+2+qDM1iJ684gPHMIY8aLWrdgQTxkumGmTq
    gawR+N5MDtdPTEQ0XfIBc2cJEUyMTY5MPvACWpkA6SdS4xSvdXK3IVfOWA=="]
  }


 TOC 

Appendix C.  Example Encrypted RSA Private Key

This example encrypts an RSA private key to the recipient using PBES2-HS256+A128KW for key encryption and A128CBC+HS256 for content encryption.

NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, all line breaks are included solely for readability.



 TOC 

C.1.  Plaintext RSA Private Key

The following RSA key is the plaintext for the encryption operation, formatted as a JWK object:

  {
   "kty":"RSA",
   "kid":"juliet@capulet.lit",
   "use":"enc",
   "n":"t6Q8PWSi1dkJj9hTP8hNYFlvadM7DflW9mWepOJhJ66w7nyoK1gPNqFMSQRy
        O125Gp-TEkodhWr0iujjHVx7BcV0llS4w5ACGgPrcAd6ZcSR0-Iqom-QFcNP
        8Sjg086MwoqQU_LYywlAGZ21WSdS_PERyGFiNnj3QQlO8Yns5jCtLCRwLHL0
        Pb1fEv45AuRIuUfVcPySBWYnDyGxvjYGDSM-AqWS9zIQ2ZilgT-GqUmipg0X
        OC0Cc20rgLe2ymLHjpHciCKVAbY5-L32-lSeZO-Os6U15_aXrk9Gw8cPUaX1
        _I8sLGuSiVdt3C_Fn2PZ3Z8i744FPFGGcG1qs2Wz-Q",
   "e":"AQAB",
   "d":"GRtbIQmhOZtyszfgKdg4u_N-R_mZGU_9k7JQ_jn1DnfTuMdSNprTeaSTyWfS
        NkuaAwnOEbIQVy1IQbWVV25NY3ybc_IhUJtfri7bAXYEReWaCl3hdlPKXy9U
        vqPYGR0kIXTQRqns-dVJ7jahlI7LyckrpTmrM8dWBo4_PMaenNnPiQgO0xnu
        ToxutRZJfJvG4Ox4ka3GORQd9CsCZ2vsUDmsXOfUENOyMqADC6p1M3h33tsu
        rY15k9qMSpG9OX_IJAXmxzAh_tWiZOwk2K4yxH9tS3Lq1yX8C1EWmeRDkK2a
        hecG85-oLKQt5VEpWHKmjOi_gJSdSgqcN96X52esAQ",
   "p":"2rnSOV4hKSN8sS4CgcQHFbs08XboFDqKum3sc4h3GRxrTmQdl1ZK9uw-PIHf
        QP0FkxXVrx-WE-ZEbrqivH_2iCLUS7wAl6XvARt1KkIaUxPPSYB9yk31s0Q8
        UK96E3_OrADAYtAJs-M3JxCLfNgqh56HDnETTQhH3rCT5T3yJws",
   "q":"1u_RiFDP7LBYh3N4GXLT9OpSKYP0uQZyiaZwBtOCBNJgQxaj10RWjsZu0c6I
        edis4S7B_coSKB0Kj9PaPaBzg-IySRvvcQuPamQu66riMhjVtG6TlV8CLCYK
        rYl52ziqK0E_ym2QnkwsUX7eYTB7LbAHRK9GqocDE5B0f808I4s",
   "dp":"KkMTWqBUefVwZ2_Dbj1pPQqyHSHjj90L5x_MOzqYAJMcLMZtbUtwKqvVDq3
        tbEo3ZIcohbDtt6SbfmWzggabpQxNxuBpoOOf_a_HgMXK_lhqigI4y_kqS1w
        Y52IwjUn5rgRrJ-yYo1h41KR-vz2pYhEAeYrhttWtxVqLCRViD6c",
   "dq":"AvfS0-gRxvn0bwJoMSnFxYcK1WnuEjQFluMGfwGitQBWtfZ1Er7t1xDkbN9
        GQTB9yqpDoYaN06H7CFtrkxhJIBQaj6nkF5KKS3TQtQ5qCzkOkmxIe3KRbBy
        mXxkb5qwUpX5ELD5xFc6FeiafWYY63TmmEAu_lRFCOJ3xDea-ots",
   "qi":"lSQi-w9CpyUReMErP1RsBLk7wNtOvs5EQpPqmuMvqW57NBUczScEoPwmUqq
        abu9V0-Py4dQ57_bapoKRu1R90bvuFnU63SHWEFglZQvJDMeAvmj4sm-Fp0o
        Yu_neotgQ0hzbI5gry7ajdYy9-2lNx_76aBZoOUu9HCJ-UsfSOI8"
  }

The octets representing the Plaintext are:

[ 123, 34, 107, 116, 121, 34, 58, 34, 82, 83, 65, 34, 44, 34, 107, 105, 100, 34, 58, 34, 106, 117, 108, 105, 101, 116, 64, 99, 97, 112, 117, 108, 101, 116, 46, 108, 105, 116, 34, 44, 34, 117, 115, 101, 34, 58, 34, 101, 110, 99, 34, 44, 34, 110, 34, 58, 34, 116, 54, 81, 56, 80, 87, 83, 105, 49, 100, 107, 74, 106, 57, 104, 84, 80, 56, 104, 78, 89, 70, 108, 118, 97, 100, 77, 55, 68, 102, 108, 87, 57, 109, 87, 101, 112, 79, 74, 104, 74, 54, 54, 119, 55, 110, 121, 111, 75, 49, 103, 80, 78, 113, 70, 77, 83, 81, 82, 121, 79, 49, 50, 53, 71, 112, 45, 84, 69, 107, 111, 100, 104, 87, 114, 48, 105, 117, 106, 106, 72, 86, 120, 55, 66, 99, 86, 48, 108, 108, 83, 52, 119, 53, 65, 67, 71, 103, 80, 114, 99, 65, 100, 54, 90, 99, 83, 82, 48, 45, 73, 113, 111, 109, 45, 81, 70, 99, 78, 80, 56, 83, 106, 103, 48, 56, 54, 77, 119, 111, 113, 81, 85, 95, 76, 89, 121, 119, 108, 65, 71, 90, 50, 49, 87, 83, 100, 83, 95, 80, 69, 82, 121, 71, 70, 105, 78, 110, 106, 51, 81, 81, 108, 79, 56, 89, 110, 115, 53, 106, 67, 116, 76, 67, 82, 119, 76, 72, 76, 48, 80, 98, 49, 102, 69, 118, 52, 53, 65, 117, 82, 73, 117, 85, 102, 86, 99, 80, 121, 83, 66, 87, 89, 110, 68, 121, 71, 120, 118, 106, 89, 71, 68, 83, 77, 45, 65, 113, 87, 83, 57, 122, 73, 81, 50, 90, 105, 108, 103, 84, 45, 71, 113, 85, 109, 105, 112, 103, 48, 88, 79, 67, 48, 67, 99, 50, 48, 114, 103, 76, 101, 50, 121, 109, 76, 72, 106, 112, 72, 99, 105, 67, 75, 86, 65, 98, 89, 53, 45, 76, 51, 50, 45, 108, 83, 101, 90, 79, 45, 79, 115, 54, 85, 49, 53, 95, 97, 88, 114, 107, 57, 71, 119, 56, 99, 80, 85, 97, 88, 49, 95, 73, 56, 115, 76, 71, 117, 83, 105, 86, 100, 116, 51, 67, 95, 70, 110, 50, 80, 90, 51, 90, 56, 105, 55, 52, 52, 70, 80, 70, 71, 71, 99, 71, 49, 113, 115, 50, 87, 122, 45, 81, 34, 44, 34, 101, 34, 58, 34, 65, 81, 65, 66, 34, 44, 34, 100, 34, 58, 34, 71, 82, 116, 98, 73, 81, 109, 104, 79, 90, 116, 121, 115, 122, 102, 103, 75, 100, 103, 52, 117, 95, 78, 45, 82, 95, 109, 90, 71, 85, 95, 57, 107, 55, 74, 81, 95, 106, 110, 49, 68, 110, 102, 84, 117, 77, 100, 83, 78, 112, 114, 84, 101, 97, 83, 84, 121, 87, 102, 83, 78, 107, 117, 97, 65, 119, 110, 79, 69, 98, 73, 81, 86, 121, 49, 73, 81, 98, 87, 86, 86, 50, 53, 78, 89, 51, 121, 98, 99, 95, 73, 104, 85, 74, 116, 102, 114, 105, 55, 98, 65, 88, 89, 69, 82, 101, 87, 97, 67, 108, 51, 104, 100, 108, 80, 75, 88, 121, 57, 85, 118, 113, 80, 89, 71, 82, 48, 107, 73, 88, 84, 81, 82, 113, 110, 115, 45, 100, 86, 74, 55, 106, 97, 104, 108, 73, 55, 76, 121, 99, 107, 114, 112, 84, 109, 114, 77, 56, 100, 87, 66, 111, 52, 95, 80, 77, 97, 101, 110, 78, 110, 80, 105, 81, 103, 79, 48, 120, 110, 117, 84, 111, 120, 117, 116, 82, 90, 74, 102, 74, 118, 71, 52, 79, 120, 52, 107, 97, 51, 71, 79, 82, 81, 100, 57, 67, 115, 67, 90, 50, 118, 115, 85, 68, 109, 115, 88, 79, 102, 85, 69, 78, 79, 121, 77, 113, 65, 68, 67, 54, 112, 49, 77, 51, 104, 51, 51, 116, 115, 117, 114, 89, 49, 53, 107, 57, 113, 77, 83, 112, 71, 57, 79, 88, 95, 73, 74, 65, 88, 109, 120, 122, 65, 104, 95, 116, 87, 105, 90, 79, 119, 107, 50, 75, 52, 121, 120, 72, 57, 116, 83, 51, 76, 113, 49, 121, 88, 56, 67, 49, 69, 87, 109, 101, 82, 68, 107, 75, 50, 97, 104, 101, 99, 71, 56, 53, 45, 111, 76, 75, 81, 116, 53, 86, 69, 112, 87, 72, 75, 109, 106, 79, 105, 95, 103, 74, 83, 100, 83, 103, 113, 99, 78, 57, 54, 88, 53, 50, 101, 115, 65, 81, 34, 44, 34, 112, 34, 58, 34, 50, 114, 110, 83, 79, 86, 52, 104, 75, 83, 78, 56, 115, 83, 52, 67, 103, 99, 81, 72, 70, 98, 115, 48, 56, 88, 98, 111, 70, 68, 113, 75, 117, 109, 51, 115, 99, 52, 104, 51, 71, 82, 120, 114, 84, 109, 81, 100, 108, 49, 90, 75, 57, 117, 119, 45, 80, 73, 72, 102, 81, 80, 48, 70, 107, 120, 88, 86, 114, 120, 45, 87, 69, 45, 90, 69, 98, 114, 113, 105, 118, 72, 95, 50, 105, 67, 76, 85, 83, 55, 119, 65, 108, 54, 88, 118, 65, 82, 116, 49, 75, 107, 73, 97, 85, 120, 80, 80, 83, 89, 66, 57, 121, 107, 51, 49, 115, 48, 81, 56, 85, 75, 57, 54, 69, 51, 95, 79, 114, 65, 68, 65, 89, 116, 65, 74, 115, 45, 77, 51, 74, 120, 67, 76, 102, 78, 103, 113, 104, 53, 54, 72, 68, 110, 69, 84, 84, 81, 104, 72, 51, 114, 67, 84, 53, 84, 51, 121, 74, 119, 115, 34, 44, 34, 113, 34, 58, 34, 49, 117, 95, 82, 105, 70, 68, 80, 55, 76, 66, 89, 104, 51, 78, 52, 71, 88, 76, 84, 57, 79, 112, 83, 75, 89, 80, 48, 117, 81, 90, 121, 105, 97, 90, 119, 66, 116, 79, 67, 66, 78, 74, 103, 81, 120, 97, 106, 49, 48, 82, 87, 106, 115, 90, 117, 48, 99, 54, 73, 101, 100, 105, 115, 52, 83, 55, 66, 95, 99, 111, 83, 75, 66, 48, 75, 106, 57, 80, 97, 80, 97, 66, 122, 103, 45, 73, 121, 83, 82, 118, 118, 99, 81, 117, 80, 97, 109, 81, 117, 54, 54, 114, 105, 77, 104, 106, 86, 116, 71, 54, 84, 108, 86, 56, 67, 76, 67, 89, 75, 114, 89, 108, 53, 50, 122, 105, 113, 75, 48, 69, 95, 121, 109, 50, 81, 110, 107, 119, 115, 85, 88, 55, 101, 89, 84, 66, 55, 76, 98, 65, 72, 82, 75, 57, 71, 113, 111, 99, 68, 69, 53, 66, 48, 102, 56, 48, 56, 73, 52, 115, 34, 44, 34, 100, 112, 34, 58, 34, 75, 107, 77, 84, 87, 113, 66, 85, 101, 102, 86, 119, 90, 50, 95, 68, 98, 106, 49, 112, 80, 81, 113, 121, 72, 83, 72, 106, 106, 57, 48, 76, 53, 120, 95, 77, 79, 122, 113, 89, 65, 74, 77, 99, 76, 77, 90, 116, 98, 85, 116, 119, 75, 113, 118, 86, 68, 113, 51, 116, 98, 69, 111, 51, 90, 73, 99, 111, 104, 98, 68, 116, 116, 54, 83, 98, 102, 109, 87, 122, 103, 103, 97, 98, 112, 81, 120, 78, 120, 117, 66, 112, 111, 79, 79, 102, 95, 97, 95, 72, 103, 77, 88, 75, 95, 108, 104, 113, 105, 103, 73, 52, 121, 95, 107, 113, 83, 49, 119, 89, 53, 50, 73, 119, 106, 85, 110, 53, 114, 103, 82, 114, 74, 45, 121, 89, 111, 49, 104, 52, 49, 75, 82, 45, 118, 122, 50, 112, 89, 104, 69, 65, 101, 89, 114, 104, 116, 116, 87, 116, 120, 86, 113, 76, 67, 82, 86, 105, 68, 54, 99, 34, 44, 34, 100, 113, 34, 58, 34, 65, 118, 102, 83, 48, 45, 103, 82, 120, 118, 110, 48, 98, 119, 74, 111, 77, 83, 110, 70, 120, 89, 99, 75, 49, 87, 110, 117, 69, 106, 81, 70, 108, 117, 77, 71, 102, 119, 71, 105, 116, 81, 66, 87, 116, 102, 90, 49, 69, 114, 55, 116, 49, 120, 68, 107, 98, 78, 57, 71, 81, 84, 66, 57, 121, 113, 112, 68, 111, 89, 97, 78, 48, 54, 72, 55, 67, 70, 116, 114, 107, 120, 104, 74, 73, 66, 81, 97, 106, 54, 110, 107, 70, 53, 75, 75, 83, 51, 84, 81, 116, 81, 53, 113, 67, 122, 107, 79, 107, 109, 120, 73, 101, 51, 75, 82, 98, 66, 121, 109, 88, 120, 107, 98, 53, 113, 119, 85, 112, 88, 53, 69, 76, 68, 53, 120, 70, 99, 54, 70, 101, 105, 97, 102, 87, 89, 89, 54, 51, 84, 109, 109, 69, 65, 117, 95, 108, 82, 70, 67, 79, 74, 51, 120, 68, 101, 97, 45, 111, 116, 115, 34, 44, 34, 113, 105, 34, 58, 34, 108, 83, 81, 105, 45, 119, 57, 67, 112, 121, 85, 82, 101, 77, 69, 114, 80, 49, 82, 115, 66, 76, 107, 55, 119, 78, 116, 79, 118, 115, 53, 69, 81, 112, 80, 113, 109, 117, 77, 118, 113, 87, 53, 55, 78, 66, 85, 99, 122, 83, 99, 69, 111, 80, 119, 109, 85, 113, 113, 97, 98, 117, 57, 86, 48, 45, 80, 121, 52, 100, 81, 53, 55, 95, 98, 97, 112, 111, 75, 82, 117, 49, 82, 57, 48, 98, 118, 117, 70, 110, 85, 54, 51, 83, 72, 87, 69, 70, 103, 108, 90, 81, 118, 74, 68, 77, 101, 65, 118, 109, 106, 52, 115, 109, 45, 70, 112, 48, 111, 89, 117, 95, 110, 101, 111, 116, 103, 81, 48, 104, 122, 98, 73, 53, 103, 114, 121, 55, 97, 106, 100, 89, 121, 57, 45, 50, 108, 78, 120, 95, 55, 54, 97, 66, 90, 111, 79, 85, 117, 57, 72, 67, 74, 45, 85, 115, 102, 83, 79, 73, 56, 34, 125 ]



 TOC 

C.2.  JWE Header

The following example JWE Protected Header declares that:

  {
   "alg":"PBES2-HS256+A128KW",
   "p2s":"2WCTcJZ1Rvd_CJuJripQ1w",
   "p2c":4096,
   "enc":"A128CBC-HS256",
   "cty":"jwk+json"
  }

Encoding this JWE Protected Header as BASE64URL(UTF8(JWE Protected Header)) gives this value:

  eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzI1NitBMTI4S1ciLCJwMnMiOiIyV0NUY0paMVJ2ZF9DSn
  VKcmlwUTF3IiwicDJjIjo0MDk2LCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiY3R5Ijoi
  andrK2pzb24ifQ


 TOC 

C.3.  Content Encryption Key (CEK)

Generate a 256 bit random Content Encryption Key (CEK). In this example, the value is:

[ 111, 27, 25, 52, 66, 29, 20, 78, 92, 176, 56, 240, 65, 208, 82, 112, 161, 131, 36, 55, 202, 236, 185, 172, 129, 23, 153, 194, 195, 48, 253, 182 ]



 TOC 

C.4.  Key Derivation

Derive a key from a shared passphrase using the PBKDF2 algorithm with HMAC SHA-256 and the specified Salt and Iteration Count values and a 128 bit requested output key size to produce the PBKDF2 Derived Key. This example uses the following passphrase:

  Thus from my lips, by yours, my sin is purged.

The octets representing the passphrase are:

[ 84, 104, 117, 115, 32, 102, 114, 111, 109, 32, 109, 121, 32, 108, 105, 112, 115, 44, 32, 98, 121, 32, 121, 111, 117, 114, 115, 44, 32, 109, 121, 32, 115, 105, 110, 32, 105, 115, 32, 112, 117, 114, 103, 101, 100, 46 ]

The Salt value (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00 || Salt Input) is:

[ 80, 66, 69, 83, 50, 45, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 43, 65, 49, 50, 56, 75, 87, 0, 217, 96, 147, 112, 150, 117, 70, 247, 127, 8, 155, 137, 174, 42, 80, 215 ].

The resulting PBKDF2 Derived Key value is:

[ 110, 171, 169, 92, 129, 92, 109, 117, 233, 242, 116, 233, 170, 14, 24, 75 ]



 TOC 

C.5.  Key Encryption

Encrypt the CEK with the A128KW algorithm using the PBKDF2 Derived Key. The resulting JWE Encrypted Key value is:

[ 78, 186, 151, 59, 11, 141, 81, 240, 213, 245, 83, 211, 53, 188, 134, 188, 66, 125, 36, 200, 222, 124, 5, 103, 249, 52, 117, 184, 140, 81, 246, 158, 161, 177, 20, 33, 245, 57, 59, 4 ]

Encoding this JWE Encrypted Key as BASE64URL(JWE Encrypted Key) gives this value:

  TrqXOwuNUfDV9VPTNbyGvEJ9JMjefAVn-TR1uIxR9p6hsRQh9Tk7BA


 TOC 

C.6.  Initialization Vector

Generate a random 128 bit JWE Initialization Vector. In this example, the value is:

[ 97, 239, 99, 214, 171, 54, 216, 57, 145, 72, 7, 93, 34, 31, 149, 156 ]

Encoding this JWE Initialization Vector as BASE64URL(JWE Initialization Vector) gives this value:

  Ye9j1qs22DmRSAddIh-VnA


 TOC 

C.7.  Additional Authenticated Data

Let the Additional Authenticated Data encryption parameter be ASCII(BASE64URL(UTF8(JWE Protected Header))). This value is:

[ 123, 34, 97, 108, 103, 34, 58, 34, 80, 66, 69, 83, 50, 45, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 43, 65, 49, 50, 56, 75, 87, 34, 44, 34, 112, 50, 115, 34, 58, 34, 50, 87, 67, 84, 99, 74, 90, 49, 82, 118, 100, 95, 67, 74, 117, 74, 114, 105, 112, 81, 49, 119, 34, 44, 34, 112, 50, 99, 34, 58, 52, 48, 57, 54, 44, 34, 101, 110, 99, 34, 58, 34, 65, 49, 50, 56, 67, 66, 67, 45, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 34, 44, 34, 99, 116, 121, 34, 58, 34, 106, 119, 107, 43, 106, 115, 111, 110, 34, 125 ]



 TOC 

C.8.  Content Encryption

Encrypt the Plaintext with AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 using the CEK as the encryption key, the JWE Initialization Vector, and the Additional Authenticated Data value above. The resulting Ciphertext is:

[ 3, 8, 65, 242, 92, 107, 148, 168, 197, 159, 77, 139, 25, 97, 42, 131, 110, 199, 225, 56, 61, 127, 38, 64, 108, 91, 247, 167, 150, 98, 112, 122, 99, 235, 132, 50, 28, 46, 56, 170, 169, 89, 220, 145, 38, 157, 148, 224, 66, 140, 8, 169, 146, 117, 222, 54, 242, 28, 31, 11, 129, 227, 226, 169, 66, 117, 133, 254, 140, 216, 115, 203, 131, 60, 60, 47, 233, 132, 121, 13, 35, 188, 53, 19, 172, 77, 59, 54, 211, 158, 172, 25, 60, 111, 0, 80, 201, 158, 160, 210, 68, 55, 12, 67, 136, 130, 87, 216, 197, 95, 62, 20, 155, 205, 5, 140, 27, 168, 221, 65, 114, 78, 157, 254, 46, 206, 182, 52, 135, 87, 239, 3, 34, 186, 126, 220, 151, 17, 33, 237, 57, 96, 172, 183, 58, 45, 248, 103, 241, 142, 136, 7, 53, 16, 173, 181, 7, 93, 92, 252, 1, 53, 212, 242, 8, 255, 11, 239, 181, 24, 148, 136, 111, 24, 161, 244, 23, 106, 69, 157, 215, 243, 189, 240, 166, 169, 249, 72, 38, 201, 99, 223, 173, 229, 9, 222, 82, 79, 157, 176, 248, 85, 239, 121, 163, 1, 31, 48, 98, 206, 61, 249, 104, 216, 201, 227, 105, 48, 194, 193, 10, 36, 160, 159, 241, 166, 84, 54, 188, 211, 243, 242, 40, 46, 45, 193, 193, 160, 169, 101, 201, 1, 73, 47, 105, 142, 88, 28, 42, 132, 26, 61, 58, 63, 142, 243, 77, 26, 179, 153, 166, 46, 203, 208, 49, 55, 229, 34, 178, 4, 109, 180, 204, 204, 115, 1, 103, 193, 5, 91, 215, 214, 195, 1, 110, 208, 53, 144, 36, 105, 12, 54, 25, 129, 101, 15, 183, 150, 250, 147, 115, 227, 58, 250, 5, 128, 232, 63, 15, 14, 19, 141, 124, 253, 142, 137, 189, 135, 26, 44, 240, 27, 88, 132, 105, 127, 6, 71, 37, 41, 124, 187, 165, 140, 34, 200, 123, 80, 228, 24, 231, 176, 132, 171, 138, 145, 152, 116, 224, 50, 141, 51, 147, 91, 186, 7, 246, 106, 217, 148, 244, 227, 244, 45, 220, 121, 165, 224, 148, 181, 17, 181, 128, 197, 101, 237, 11, 169, 229, 149, 199, 78, 56, 15, 14, 190, 91, 216, 222, 247, 213, 74, 40, 8, 96, 20, 168, 119, 96, 26, 24, 52, 37, 82, 127, 57, 176, 147, 118, 59, 7, 224, 33, 117, 72, 155, 29, 82, 26, 215, 189, 140, 119, 28, 152, 118, 93, 222, 194, 192, 148, 115, 83, 253, 216, 212, 108, 88, 83, 175, 172, 220, 97, 79, 110, 42, 223, 170, 161, 34, 164, 144, 193, 76, 122, 92, 160, 41, 178, 175, 6, 35, 96, 113, 96, 158, 90, 129, 101, 26, 45, 70, 180, 189, 230, 15, 5, 247, 150, 209, 94, 171, 26, 13, 142, 212, 129, 1, 176, 5, 0, 112, 203, 174, 185, 119, 76, 233, 189, 54, 172, 189, 245, 223, 253, 205, 12, 88, 9, 126, 157, 225, 90, 40, 229, 191, 63, 30, 160, 224, 69, 3, 140, 109, 70, 89, 37, 213, 245, 194, 210, 180, 188, 63, 210, 139, 221, 2, 144, 200, 20, 177, 216, 29, 227, 242, 106, 12, 135, 142, 139, 144, 82, 225, 162, 171, 176, 108, 99, 6, 43, 193, 161, 116, 234, 216, 1, 242, 21, 124, 162, 98, 205, 124, 193, 38, 12, 242, 90, 101, 76, 204, 184, 124, 58, 180, 16, 240, 26, 76, 195, 250, 212, 191, 185, 191, 97, 198, 186, 73, 225, 75, 14, 90, 123, 121, 172, 101, 50, 160, 221, 141, 253, 205, 126, 77, 9, 87, 198, 110, 104, 182, 141, 120, 51, 25, 232, 3, 32, 80, 6, 156, 8, 18, 4, 135, 221, 142, 25, 135, 2, 129, 132, 115, 227, 74, 141, 28, 119, 11, 141, 117, 134, 198, 62, 150, 254, 97, 75, 197, 251, 99, 89, 204, 224, 226, 67, 83, 175, 89, 0, 81, 29, 38, 207, 89, 140, 255, 197, 177, 164, 128, 62, 116, 224, 180, 109, 169, 28, 2, 59, 176, 130, 252, 44, 178, 81, 24, 181, 176, 75, 44, 61, 91, 12, 37, 21, 255, 83, 130, 197, 16, 231, 60, 217, 56, 131, 118, 168, 202, 58, 52, 84, 124, 162, 185, 174, 162, 226, 242, 112, 68, 246, 202, 16, 208, 52, 154, 58, 129, 80, 102, 33, 171, 6, 186, 177, 14, 195, 88, 136, 6, 0, 155, 28, 100, 162, 207, 162, 222, 117, 248, 170, 208, 114, 87, 31, 57, 176, 33, 57, 83, 253, 12, 168, 110, 194, 59, 22, 86, 48, 227, 196, 22, 176, 218, 122, 149, 21, 249, 195, 178, 174, 250, 20, 34, 120, 60, 139, 201, 99, 40, 18, 177, 17, 54, 54, 6, 3, 222, 128, 160, 88, 11, 27, 0, 81, 192, 36, 41, 169, 146, 8, 47, 64, 136, 28, 64, 209, 67, 135, 202, 20, 234, 182, 91, 204, 146, 195, 187, 0, 72, 77, 11, 111, 152, 204, 252, 177, 212, 89, 33, 50, 132, 184, 44, 183, 186, 19, 250, 69, 176, 201, 102, 140, 14, 143, 212, 212, 160, 123, 208, 185, 27, 155, 68, 77, 133, 198, 2, 126, 155, 215, 22, 91, 30, 217, 176, 172, 244, 156, 174, 143, 75, 90, 21, 102, 1, 160, 59, 253, 188, 88, 57, 185, 197, 83, 24, 22, 180, 174, 47, 207, 52, 1, 141, 146, 119, 233, 68, 228, 224, 228, 193, 248, 155, 202, 90, 7, 213, 88, 33, 108, 107, 14, 86, 8, 120, 250, 58, 142, 35, 164, 238, 221, 219, 35, 123, 88, 199, 192, 143, 104, 83, 17, 166, 243, 247, 11, 166, 67, 68, 204, 132, 23, 110, 103, 228, 14, 55, 122, 88, 57, 180, 178, 237, 52, 130, 214, 245, 102, 123, 67, 73, 175, 1, 127, 112, 148, 94, 132, 164, 197, 153, 217, 87, 25, 89, 93, 63, 22, 66, 166, 90, 251, 101, 10, 145, 66, 17, 124, 36, 255, 165, 226, 97, 16, 86, 112, 154, 88, 105, 253, 56, 209, 229, 122, 103, 51, 24, 228, 190, 3, 236, 48, 182, 121, 176, 140, 128, 117, 87, 251, 224, 37, 23, 248, 21, 218, 85, 251, 136, 84, 147, 143, 144, 46, 155, 183, 251, 89, 86, 23, 26, 237, 100, 167, 32, 130, 173, 237, 89, 55, 110, 70, 142, 127, 65, 230, 208, 109, 69, 19, 253, 84, 130, 130, 193, 92, 58, 108, 150, 42, 136, 249, 234, 86, 241, 182, 19, 117, 246, 26, 181, 92, 101, 155, 44, 103, 235, 173, 30, 140, 90, 29, 183, 190, 77, 53, 206, 127, 5, 87, 8, 187, 184, 92, 4, 157, 22, 18, 105, 251, 39, 88, 182, 181, 103, 148, 233, 6, 63, 70, 188, 7, 101, 216, 127, 77, 31, 12, 233, 7, 147, 106, 30, 150, 77, 145, 13, 205, 48, 56, 245, 220, 89, 252, 127, 51, 180, 36, 31, 55, 18, 214, 230, 254, 217, 197, 65, 247, 27, 215, 117, 247, 108, 157, 121, 11, 63, 150, 195, 83, 6, 134, 242, 41, 24, 105, 204, 5, 63, 192, 14, 159, 113, 72, 140, 128, 51, 215, 80, 215, 39, 149, 94, 79, 128, 34, 5, 129, 82, 83, 121, 187, 37, 146, 27, 32, 177, 167, 71, 9, 195, 30, 199, 196, 205, 252, 207, 69, 8, 120, 27, 190, 51, 43, 75, 249, 234, 167, 116, 206, 203, 199, 43, 108, 87, 48, 155, 140, 228, 210, 85, 25, 161, 96, 67, 8, 205, 64, 39, 75, 88, 44, 238, 227, 16, 0, 100, 93, 129, 18, 4, 149, 50, 68, 72, 99, 35, 111, 254, 27, 102, 175, 108, 233, 87, 181, 44, 169, 18, 139, 79, 208, 14, 202, 192, 5, 162, 222, 231, 149, 24, 211, 49, 120, 101, 39, 206, 87, 147, 204, 200, 251, 104, 115, 5, 127, 117, 195, 79, 151, 18, 224, 52, 0, 245, 4, 85, 255, 103, 217, 0, 116, 198, 80, 91, 167, 192, 154, 199, 197, 149, 237, 51, 2, 131, 30, 226, 95, 105, 48, 68, 135, 208, 144, 120, 176, 145, 157, 8, 171, 80, 94, 61, 92, 92, 220, 157, 13, 138, 51, 23, 185, 124, 31, 77, 1, 87, 241, 43, 239, 55, 122, 86, 210, 48, 208, 204, 112, 144, 80, 147, 106, 219, 47, 253, 31, 134, 176, 16, 135, 219, 95, 17, 129, 83, 236, 125, 136, 112, 86, 228, 252, 71, 129, 218, 174, 156, 236, 12, 27, 159, 11, 138, 252, 253, 207, 31, 115, 214, 118, 239, 203, 16, 211, 205, 99, 22, 51, 163, 107, 162, 246, 199, 67, 127, 34, 108, 197, 53, 117, 58, 199, 3, 190, 74, 70, 190, 65, 235, 175, 97, 157, 215, 252, 189, 245, 100, 229, 248, 46, 90, 126, 237, 4, 159, 128, 58, 7, 156, 236, 69, 191, 85, 240, 179, 224, 249, 152, 49, 195, 223, 60, 78, 186, 157, 155, 217, 58, 105, 116, 164, 217, 111, 215, 150, 218, 252, 84, 86, 248, 140, 240, 226, 61, 106, 208, 95, 60, 163, 6, 0, 235, 253, 162, 96, 62, 234, 251, 249, 35, 21, 7, 211, 233, 86, 50, 33, 203, 67, 248, 60, 190, 123, 48, 167, 226, 90, 191, 71, 56, 183, 165, 17, 85, 76, 238, 140, 211, 168, 53, 223, 194, 4, 97, 149, 156, 120, 137, 76, 33, 229, 243, 194, 208, 198, 202, 139, 28, 114, 46, 224, 92, 254, 83, 100, 134, 158, 92, 70, 78, 61, 62, 138, 24, 173, 216, 66, 198, 70, 254, 47, 59, 193, 53, 6, 139, 19, 153, 253, 28, 199, 122, 160, 27, 67, 234, 209, 227, 139, 4, 50, 7, 178, 183, 89, 252, 32, 128, 137, 55, 52, 29, 89, 12, 111, 42, 181, 51, 170, 132, 132, 207, 170, 228, 254, 178, 213, 0, 136, 175, 8 ]

The resulting Authentication Tag value is:

[ 125, 249, 143, 191, 240, 4, 204, 132, 62, 241, 113, 178, 91, 88, 254, 19 ]

Encoding this JWE Ciphertext as BASE64URL(JWE Ciphertext) gives this value:

  AwhB8lxrlKjFn02LGWEqg27H4Tg9fyZAbFv3p5ZicHpj64QyHC44qqlZ3JEmnZTgQo
  wIqZJ13jbyHB8LgePiqUJ1hf6M2HPLgzw8L-mEeQ0jvDUTrE07NtOerBk8bwBQyZ6g
  0kQ3DEOIglfYxV8-FJvNBYwbqN1Bck6d_i7OtjSHV-8DIrp-3JcRIe05YKy3Oi34Z_
  GOiAc1EK21B11c_AE11PII_wvvtRiUiG8YofQXakWd1_O98Kap-UgmyWPfreUJ3lJP
  nbD4Ve95owEfMGLOPflo2MnjaTDCwQokoJ_xplQ2vNPz8iguLcHBoKllyQFJL2mOWB
  wqhBo9Oj-O800as5mmLsvQMTflIrIEbbTMzHMBZ8EFW9fWwwFu0DWQJGkMNhmBZQ-3
  lvqTc-M6-gWA6D8PDhONfP2Oib2HGizwG1iEaX8GRyUpfLuljCLIe1DkGOewhKuKkZ
  h04DKNM5Nbugf2atmU9OP0Ldx5peCUtRG1gMVl7Qup5ZXHTjgPDr5b2N731UooCGAU
  qHdgGhg0JVJ_ObCTdjsH4CF1SJsdUhrXvYx3HJh2Xd7CwJRzU_3Y1GxYU6-s3GFPbi
  rfqqEipJDBTHpcoCmyrwYjYHFgnlqBZRotRrS95g8F95bRXqsaDY7UgQGwBQBwy665
  d0zpvTasvfXf_c0MWAl-neFaKOW_Px6g4EUDjG1GWSXV9cLStLw_0ovdApDIFLHYHe
  PyagyHjouQUuGiq7BsYwYrwaF06tgB8hV8omLNfMEmDPJaZUzMuHw6tBDwGkzD-tS_
  ub9hxrpJ4UsOWnt5rGUyoN2N_c1-TQlXxm5oto14MxnoAyBQBpwIEgSH3Y4ZhwKBhH
  PjSo0cdwuNdYbGPpb-YUvF-2NZzODiQ1OvWQBRHSbPWYz_xbGkgD504LRtqRwCO7CC
  _CyyURi1sEssPVsMJRX_U4LFEOc82TiDdqjKOjRUfKK5rqLi8nBE9soQ0DSaOoFQZi
  GrBrqxDsNYiAYAmxxkos-i3nX4qtByVx85sCE5U_0MqG7COxZWMOPEFrDaepUV-cOy
  rvoUIng8i8ljKBKxETY2BgPegKBYCxsAUcAkKamSCC9AiBxA0UOHyhTqtlvMksO7AE
  hNC2-YzPyx1FkhMoS4LLe6E_pFsMlmjA6P1NSge9C5G5tETYXGAn6b1xZbHtmwrPSc
  ro9LWhVmAaA7_bxYObnFUxgWtK4vzzQBjZJ36UTk4OTB-JvKWgfVWCFsaw5WCHj6Oo
  4jpO7d2yN7WMfAj2hTEabz9wumQ0TMhBduZ-QON3pYObSy7TSC1vVme0NJrwF_cJRe
  hKTFmdlXGVldPxZCplr7ZQqRQhF8JP-l4mEQVnCaWGn9ONHlemczGOS-A-wwtnmwjI
  B1V_vgJRf4FdpV-4hUk4-QLpu3-1lWFxrtZKcggq3tWTduRo5_QebQbUUT_VSCgsFc
  OmyWKoj56lbxthN19hq1XGWbLGfrrR6MWh23vk01zn8FVwi7uFwEnRYSafsnWLa1Z5
  TpBj9GvAdl2H9NHwzpB5NqHpZNkQ3NMDj13Fn8fzO0JB83Etbm_tnFQfcb13X3bJ15
  Cz-Ww1MGhvIpGGnMBT_ADp9xSIyAM9dQ1yeVXk-AIgWBUlN5uyWSGyCxp0cJwx7HxM
  38z0UIeBu-MytL-eqndM7LxytsVzCbjOTSVRmhYEMIzUAnS1gs7uMQAGRdgRIElTJE
  SGMjb_4bZq9s6Ve1LKkSi0_QDsrABaLe55UY0zF4ZSfOV5PMyPtocwV_dcNPlxLgNA
  D1BFX_Z9kAdMZQW6fAmsfFle0zAoMe4l9pMESH0JB4sJGdCKtQXj1cXNydDYozF7l8
  H00BV_Er7zd6VtIw0MxwkFCTatsv_R-GsBCH218RgVPsfYhwVuT8R4HarpzsDBufC4
  r8_c8fc9Z278sQ081jFjOja6L2x0N_ImzFNXU6xwO-Ska-QeuvYZ3X_L31ZOX4Llp-
  7QSfgDoHnOxFv1Xws-D5mDHD3zxOup2b2TppdKTZb9eW2vxUVviM8OI9atBfPKMGAO
  v9omA-6vv5IxUH0-lWMiHLQ_g8vnswp-Jav0c4t6URVUzujNOoNd_CBGGVnHiJTCHl
  88LQxsqLHHIu4Fz-U2SGnlxGTj0-ihit2ELGRv4vO8E1BosTmf0cx3qgG0Pq0eOLBD
  IHsrdZ_CCAiTc0HVkMbyq1M6qEhM-q5P6y1QCIrwg

Encoding this JWE Authentication Tag as BASE64URL(JWE Authentication Tag) gives this value:

  ffmPv_AEzIQ-8XGyW1j-Ew


 TOC 

C.9.  Complete Representation

Assemble the final representation: The Compact Serialization of this result is the string BASE64URL(UTF8(JWE Protected Header)) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE Encrypted Key) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE Initialization Vector) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE Ciphertext) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE Authentication Tag).

The final result in this example is:

  eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzI1NitBMTI4S1ciLCJwMnMiOiIyV0NUY0paMVJ2ZF9DSn
  VKcmlwUTF3IiwicDJjIjo0MDk2LCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiY3R5Ijoi
  andrK2pzb24ifQ.
  TrqXOwuNUfDV9VPTNbyGvEJ9JMjefAVn-TR1uIxR9p6hsRQh9Tk7BA.
  Ye9j1qs22DmRSAddIh-VnA.
  AwhB8lxrlKjFn02LGWEqg27H4Tg9fyZAbFv3p5ZicHpj64QyHC44qqlZ3JEmnZTgQo
  wIqZJ13jbyHB8LgePiqUJ1hf6M2HPLgzw8L-mEeQ0jvDUTrE07NtOerBk8bwBQyZ6g
  0kQ3DEOIglfYxV8-FJvNBYwbqN1Bck6d_i7OtjSHV-8DIrp-3JcRIe05YKy3Oi34Z_
  GOiAc1EK21B11c_AE11PII_wvvtRiUiG8YofQXakWd1_O98Kap-UgmyWPfreUJ3lJP
  nbD4Ve95owEfMGLOPflo2MnjaTDCwQokoJ_xplQ2vNPz8iguLcHBoKllyQFJL2mOWB
  wqhBo9Oj-O800as5mmLsvQMTflIrIEbbTMzHMBZ8EFW9fWwwFu0DWQJGkMNhmBZQ-3
  lvqTc-M6-gWA6D8PDhONfP2Oib2HGizwG1iEaX8GRyUpfLuljCLIe1DkGOewhKuKkZ
  h04DKNM5Nbugf2atmU9OP0Ldx5peCUtRG1gMVl7Qup5ZXHTjgPDr5b2N731UooCGAU
  qHdgGhg0JVJ_ObCTdjsH4CF1SJsdUhrXvYx3HJh2Xd7CwJRzU_3Y1GxYU6-s3GFPbi
  rfqqEipJDBTHpcoCmyrwYjYHFgnlqBZRotRrS95g8F95bRXqsaDY7UgQGwBQBwy665
  d0zpvTasvfXf_c0MWAl-neFaKOW_Px6g4EUDjG1GWSXV9cLStLw_0ovdApDIFLHYHe
  PyagyHjouQUuGiq7BsYwYrwaF06tgB8hV8omLNfMEmDPJaZUzMuHw6tBDwGkzD-tS_
  ub9hxrpJ4UsOWnt5rGUyoN2N_c1-TQlXxm5oto14MxnoAyBQBpwIEgSH3Y4ZhwKBhH
  PjSo0cdwuNdYbGPpb-YUvF-2NZzODiQ1OvWQBRHSbPWYz_xbGkgD504LRtqRwCO7CC
  _CyyURi1sEssPVsMJRX_U4LFEOc82TiDdqjKOjRUfKK5rqLi8nBE9soQ0DSaOoFQZi
  GrBrqxDsNYiAYAmxxkos-i3nX4qtByVx85sCE5U_0MqG7COxZWMOPEFrDaepUV-cOy
  rvoUIng8i8ljKBKxETY2BgPegKBYCxsAUcAkKamSCC9AiBxA0UOHyhTqtlvMksO7AE
  hNC2-YzPyx1FkhMoS4LLe6E_pFsMlmjA6P1NSge9C5G5tETYXGAn6b1xZbHtmwrPSc
  ro9LWhVmAaA7_bxYObnFUxgWtK4vzzQBjZJ36UTk4OTB-JvKWgfVWCFsaw5WCHj6Oo
  4jpO7d2yN7WMfAj2hTEabz9wumQ0TMhBduZ-QON3pYObSy7TSC1vVme0NJrwF_cJRe
  hKTFmdlXGVldPxZCplr7ZQqRQhF8JP-l4mEQVnCaWGn9ONHlemczGOS-A-wwtnmwjI
  B1V_vgJRf4FdpV-4hUk4-QLpu3-1lWFxrtZKcggq3tWTduRo5_QebQbUUT_VSCgsFc
  OmyWKoj56lbxthN19hq1XGWbLGfrrR6MWh23vk01zn8FVwi7uFwEnRYSafsnWLa1Z5
  TpBj9GvAdl2H9NHwzpB5NqHpZNkQ3NMDj13Fn8fzO0JB83Etbm_tnFQfcb13X3bJ15
  Cz-Ww1MGhvIpGGnMBT_ADp9xSIyAM9dQ1yeVXk-AIgWBUlN5uyWSGyCxp0cJwx7HxM
  38z0UIeBu-MytL-eqndM7LxytsVzCbjOTSVRmhYEMIzUAnS1gs7uMQAGRdgRIElTJE
  SGMjb_4bZq9s6Ve1LKkSi0_QDsrABaLe55UY0zF4ZSfOV5PMyPtocwV_dcNPlxLgNA
  D1BFX_Z9kAdMZQW6fAmsfFle0zAoMe4l9pMESH0JB4sJGdCKtQXj1cXNydDYozF7l8
  H00BV_Er7zd6VtIw0MxwkFCTatsv_R-GsBCH218RgVPsfYhwVuT8R4HarpzsDBufC4
  r8_c8fc9Z278sQ081jFjOja6L2x0N_ImzFNXU6xwO-Ska-QeuvYZ3X_L31ZOX4Llp-
  7QSfgDoHnOxFv1Xws-D5mDHD3zxOup2b2TppdKTZb9eW2vxUVviM8OI9atBfPKMGAO
  v9omA-6vv5IxUH0-lWMiHLQ_g8vnswp-Jav0c4t6URVUzujNOoNd_CBGGVnHiJTCHl
  88LQxsqLHHIu4Fz-U2SGnlxGTj0-ihit2ELGRv4vO8E1BosTmf0cx3qgG0Pq0eOLBD
  IHsrdZ_CCAiTc0HVkMbyq1M6qEhM-q5P6y1QCIrwg.
  ffmPv_AEzIQ-8XGyW1j-Ew


 TOC 

Appendix D.  Acknowledgements

A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures (Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, “Magic Signatures,” January 2011.) [MagicSignatures].

This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular, the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording that influenced this specification:

Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Breno de Medeiros, Joe Hildebrand, Edmund Jay, Ben Laurie, James Manger, Matt Miller, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat Sakimura, Jim Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.

Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors during the creation of this specification.



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Appendix E.  Document History

[[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]

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 TOC 

Author's Address

  Michael B. Jones
  Microsoft
Email:  mbj@microsoft.com
URI:  http://self-issued.info/