Archive for the 'Privacy' Category

May 7, 2018
On our journey to deprecate the password: Public Implementation Draft of FIDO2 Client to Authenticator Protocol (CTAP) specification

FIDO logoI’m pleased to report that a public Implementation Draft of the FIDO2 Client to Authenticator Protocol (CTAP) specification has been published. This specification enables FIDO2 clients, such as browsers implementing the W3C Web Authentication (WebAuthn) specification, to perform authentication using pairwise public/private key pairs securely held by authenticators speaking the CTAP protocol (rather than passwords). Use of three transports for communicating with authenticators is specified in the CTAP specification: USB Human Interface Device (USB HID), Near Field Communication (NFC), and Bluetooth Smart/Bluetooth Low Energy Technology (BLE).

This specification was developed in parallel with WebAuthn, including having a number of common authors. This CTAP version is aligned with the WebAuthn Candidate Recommendation (CR) version.

The CTAP Implementation Draft is available at:

Congratulations to the members of the FIDO2 working group for reaching this important milestone. This is a major step in our journey to deprecate the password!

March 20, 2018
W3C Web Authentication (WebAuthn) specification has achieved Candidate Recommendation (CR) status

W3C logoThe W3C Web Authentication (WebAuthn) specification is now a W3C Candidate Recommendation (CR). See the specification at and my blog post announcing this result for the WebAuthn working group at

This milestone represents a huge step towards enabling logins to occur using privacy-preserving public/private key pairs securely held by authenticators, rather than passwords. Its contents have been informed by what we learned during several rounds of interop testing by multiple browser and authenticator vendors. The Web Authentication spec has also progressed in parallel with and been kept in sync with the FIDO2 Client To Authenticator Protocol (CTAP) specification, so that they work well together.

March 2, 2010
U-Prove Specifications Licensed and Sample Code Released

U-Prove logoThis morning at the RSA conference, Scott Charney announced that Microsoft has licensed the U-Prove technology under the Open Specification Promise and released sample implementations in C# and Java under the BSD license. Implementers will be interested in two specifications: the “U-Prove Cryptographic Specification V1.0”, which documents U-Prove’s cryptographic operations, and “U-Prove Technology Integration into the Identity Metasystem V1.0”, which documents how to use U-Prove tokens with WS-Trust. These specifications are intended to enable interoperable implementations.

The U-Prove technologies enable two key properties: minimal disclosure and unlinkability. For more about U-Prove and today’s Community Technology Preview (CTP) release, see the Microsoft U-Prove site, the post announcing the release, and Vittorio’s post (with links to videos).

January 14, 2009
Internet Safety Technical Task Force Report

Enhancing Child Safety and Online TechnologiesThe Internet Safety Technical Task Force has released its report on online child safety: Enhancing Child Safety and Online Technologies: Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States. During its year-long effort, the task force surveyed existing research and evaluated technologies that are relevant to child safety online.

One thing noticeably absent from the report, given the number of different technologies presented to and discussed by the task force, is references to any of them. In the end, the task force took the position that while technologies can help, that none is a silver bullet, and none are a substitute for parents and other adults who are active in children’s lives. I have to agree with them.

The Technical Advisory Board appointed by the task force evaluated possible technological approaches to making children safer online. A number of its members were individuals active in the identity and security communities, including Ben Adida of Harvard, Todd Inskeep of Bank of America, RL “Bob” Morgan of the University of Washington, and Danny Weitzner of MIT. The Technology Advisory Board Report summary included:

In sum, the TAB review of the submitted technologies leaves us in a state of cautious optimism, with many submissions showing promise. The children’s online safety industry is evolving, and many of the technologies we reviewed were point solutions rather than broad attempts to address the children’s safety online as a whole. There is, however, a great deal of innovation in this arena as well as passionate commitment to finding workable, reasonable solutions from companies both large and small. Thus, the TAB emerged from its review process encouraged by the creativity and productivity apparent in this field.

By the end of the review process, the TAB ultimately determined that no single technology reviewed could solve every aspect of online safety for minors, or even one aspect of it one hundred percent of the time. But clearly there is a role for technology in addressing this issue both now and in the future, and most likely, various technologies could be leveraged together to address the challenges in this arena.

Some critics may object to the use of technology as a solution, given the risk of failure and lack of total certainty around performance. However, the TAB believes that although it is indeed true that even the cleverest, most robust technology can be circumvented, this does not necessarily mean that technology should not be deployed at all. It simply means that – even with deployment of the best tools and technologies available to jumpstart the process of enhancing safety for minors online – there is no substitute for a parent, caregiver, or other responsible adult actively guiding and supporting a child in safe Internet usage. Likewise, education is an essential part of the puzzle. Even the best technology or technologies should be only part of a broader solution to keeping minors safer online.

Makes sense to me…

From a personal perspective, I’d like to thank the task force for giving me the opportunity to describe how Information Cards can be used to convey verified claims about individuals, and to thank IDology and Novell for making this real with a working demo of verified age cards for the task force.

I also enjoyed working with Jules Cohen and Chuck Cosson of Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing and Law and Corporate Affairs groups on the identity technology aspects of Microsoft’s inputs to the task force. I have enormous respect for the balanced and thoughtful perspectives they brought to the discussion, as exemplified by their paper Digital Playgrounds: Creating Safer Online Environments for Children, which was submitted to the task force. Their proposal that existing offline identity proofing ceremonies could be leveraged to enhance safety online resonated with many of the task force members.

I expect media and blog coverage of the report to be active over the next few days. An early sampling includes:

These are important and interesting issues. It’s a discussion well worth following and participating in.

October 12, 2008
Online Identity Theft and Digital Playgrounds Whitepapers

I wanted to bring your attention to two whitepapers covering important Internet identity topics that were published by members of Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing and Privacy teams, both announced on the blog The Data Privacy Imperative.

The first is “Online Identity Theft: Changing the Game – Protecting Personal Information on the Internet” by Jules Cohen, Brendon Lynch, and other members of Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing team. Per the announcement, the paper:

… for the first time describes in detail Microsoft’s comprehensive strategy for curbing online identity theft. In addition to describing current Microsoft initiatives, the paper outlines long-term solutions for “changing the game” by ending reliance on “shared secrets” for authentication.

Relying on “shared secrets,” such as usernames, passwords, birthdates and government ID numbers to establish the right to do something online, creates security problems because they are relatively easy to steal and can be difficult to remember, update and manage. We need to employ new identity practices online that are just as reliable but better protect against fraud and abuse, and that’s where Information Cards come in …

The paper has been greeted by favorable reviews, including an Information Week article that also describes the role that the Information Card Foundation can play and a NetworkWorld article by Dave Kearns that concludes “Download this important paper, read it, then act on it.”

The second is “Digital Playgrounds: Creating Safer Online Environments for Children” by Jules Cohen of Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing team and Chuck Cosson, Policy Counsel on privacy and safety issues, with some input from me. The paper was presented to the Internet Safety Technical Task Force (ISTTF) by Jules and submitted by Microsoft as input to the task force. As Jules wrote about the approach:

The Digital Playgrounds paper outlines a framework that would enable the creation of optional online “walled gardens,” specifically for children and trusted adults. These online sites would only be accessible by folks with trusted and age verified ‘digital identities.’ This framework suggests achieving this by allowing trusted offline parties, who have the ability to meet with a parent and child in real life, examine the appropriate documents and then issue extremely secure digital identities based on these in in-person proofing moments. The framework we have outlined is largely a technical solution to the age verification challenge, but we believe that the nontechnical aspects of the problem will be as difficult to solve as the technical ones, if not more so. For example, government and industry will need to work together on designing the necessary criteria for in-person proofing events as well as the subsequent issuing, auditing and revoking of these digital identity cards.

I especially encourage people to consider the possibility that existing offline identity proofing ceremonies might be leveraged to enhance safety online as well.

July 4, 2008
Digital Identity Podcast for MySuccessGateway

MicrophoneKim Cameron and I recorded a podcast on digital identity for MySuccessGateway this week at the invitation of Jim Peake of SpeechRep Consulting. Jim was a gracious, informed, and enthusiastic host during our conversation, which covered a wide range of digital identity topics including identity theft, shared secrets, privacy, Information Cards and the Information Card Foundation, the value of verified claims, business models for identity providers, password fatigue, defeating phishing attacks, OpenID, why interoperability is essential and the interoperability testing the industry is doing together to make it a reality, some of the identity products that are shipping and forthcoming, and the Laws of Identity. He even asked us how we felt about Bill Gates’ retirement, as a kicker.

If that sounds interesting to you, give it a listen

March 6, 2008
Welcoming Credentica’s People and Privacy Technology to Microsoft

Stefan BrandsI’m writing today to publicly welcome Stefan Brands, Christian Paquin, and Greg Thompson, of Credentica to Microsoft’s Identity and Access Group. I’m looking forward to working with them and to us adding their fantastic minimal disclosure technology to our identity products. Like Kim, I’m excited!

I urge people to check out Stefan’s announcement, Kim’s detailed write-up about the significance of this technology (I love the phrase “Need-to-Know Internet”), and Brendon Lynch’s post on Microsoft’s Data Privacy blog.

Welcome to Microsoft!